Mitral RegurgitationThe murmur of mitral regurgitation is a mid-frequency, rectangular murmur taking up all of systole. S1 is normal. S2 is single. There is a third heart sound gallop in diastole. Both the left ventricle and the left atrium are enlarged. The murmur is caused by turbulent flow through the incompetent mitral valve leaflets into the left atrium.
The patient's position should be supine.
Listening TipsSystole:Rectangular murmur, mid-frequency
Features:Use chestpiece bell to improve S3 sound
Observe Cardiac Animation
Both the left ventricle and the left atrium are enlarged. The murmur is caused by turbulent flow through the incompetent mitral valve leaflets into the left atrium.
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Authors and Sources
Authors and Reviewers
- EKG heart rhythm modules: Thomas O'Brien.
- EKG monitor simulation developer: Steve Collmann
12 Lead Course: Dr. Michael Mazzini, MD.
- Spanish language EKG: Breena R. Taira, MD, MPH
- Medical review: Dr. Jonathan Keroes, MD
Heart sounds and mentorship: W. Proctor Harvey, MD
- Medical review: Dr. Pedro Azevedo, MD, Cardiology
Last Update: 1/8/2023
Electrocardiography for Healthcare Professionals, 5th Edition
Kathryn Booth and Thomas O'Brien
ISBN10: 1260064778, ISBN13: 9781260064773
McGraw Hill, 2019
Rapid Interpretation of EKG's, Sixth Edition
Cover Publishing Company
12 Lead EKG for Nurses: Simple Steps to Interpret Rhythms, Arrhythmias, Blocks, Hypertrophy, Infarcts, & Cardiac Drugs
Create Space Independent Publishing
Heart Sounds and Murmurs: A Practical Guide with Audio CD-ROM 3rd Edition
Elsevier-Health Sciences Division
Barbara A. Erickson, PhD, RN, CCRN
- Clinical Heart Disease
W Proctor Harvey, MD
Clinical Heart Disease
Laennec Publishing; 1st edition (January 1, 2009)
The Virtual Cardiac Patient: A Multimedia Guide to Heart Sounds, Murmurs, EKG
Jonathan Keroes, David Lieberman
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkin)
ISBN-10: 0781784425; ISBN-13: 978-0781784429
- Project Semilla, UCLA Emergency Medicine, EKG Training Breena R. Taira, MD, MPH
Mitral Regurgitation | Lessons with Audio and Video | #91