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Medical Dictionary - Letter: t



TermDefinition
t waveThe positive deflection after each QRS complex. It indicates ventricular repolarization.
t.i.d.three times a day
t.i.n.three times a night
T3triiodothyronine
T4thyroxine
tabtablet
tachy-fast
tachycardiaAbnormally rapid heartbeat, usually over 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by an irregular rhythm is called tachyarrhythmia.
tachypneaAbnormally rapid breathing rate.
tact/otouch
TAHtotal abdominal hysterectomy
tal/otalus, ankle
talcFinely powdered magnesium silicate used as a dusting powder.
talusThe second largest of the tarsal bones, articulating with the tibia and fibula to form the ankle joint.
tamponsPlugs or cylinders made of cotton, sponge, or other absorbent material used in surgery to absorb fluids.
tarlov cystsPerineurial cysts commonly found in the sacral region.
tars/otarsal bone (ankle), edge of eyelid
tarsalPertaining to the bones of the ankle and foot.
tarsal bonesThe seven bones which form the tarsus: calcaneus, talus, cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.
tarsal jointsThe articulations between the various tarsal bones.
tarsalgiaPain in the foot.
tarsorrhaphyJoining of part or all of the upper and lower eyelids so as to partially or completely close the eye.
tarsusThe bones of the ankle and proximal part of the foot.
tasteThe sense of perceiving different flavors in soluble substances that contact the tongue and trigger nerve impulses to special taste centers in the cortex and the thalamus of the brain. The four basic traditional tastes are sweet, salty, sour and bitter.
taste budsSmall sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx.
TATtetanus antitoxin
taut-same
tax/oorder, coordination
-taxiaordering, arrangement
taxisReturning a body part back to its normal position after a dislocation, fracture or hernia.
TBtuberculosis
TBVtotal blood volume
TDMtherapeutic drug monitoring
tearsThe fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the conjunctiva and cornea.
techn/oskill, art
tect/oroof
tectorial membraneA membrane, present in the cochlea of the inner ear, that runs parallel with the basilar membrane.
tectospinalDenoting nerve fibers passing from the mesencephalic tectum to the spinal cord.
tectumA roof-like structure of the midbrain.
teg-cover
tel/ocomplete, end
telaAny thin web like structure or tissue.
tele/odistance, end
telemedicineDelivery of health services via remote communications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.
telencephalonThe anterior subdivision of the prosencephalon which develops into the olfactory bulbs, cerebral cortex and basal ganglia.
telomereThe end of a chromosome, which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability.
telophaseThe final phase of mitosis.
temp/otime
temperatureThe sensible intensity of heat of any substance.
temporal arteriesArteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.
temporal boneEither of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing.
temporal lobeOne of the main divisions of the cerebral cortex in each hemisphere of the brain, responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing.
TENtoxic epidermal necrolysis
ten/otendon
tenaculumA surgical instrument for lifting and holding tissue or a body part.
tendin/otendon
tendinitisInflammation of a tendon.
tendinosisDegeneration of a tendon.
tendinousRelating to tendons.
tendonA strap of white fibrous connective tissue that joins muscle to bone.
tenesmusA straining but ineffective attempt to urinate or defecate.
tennis elbowA condition characterized by pain in or near the lateral humeral epicondyle or in the forearm extensor muscle mass as a result of unusual strain.
tenodesisFixation of the end of a tendon to a bone, often by suturing.
tenoplastySurgical repair of a tendon.
tenosynovitisInflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath.
tenotomySurgical division of a tendon for relief of a congenital deformity of a joint.
TENStranscutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
-tensionstretched, strained
tensorAny muscle that causes stretching or tension of a body part.
tephr/ogray, ash-colored
tera-trillion
terat/omonster, monstrosity
teratologyA branch of embryology for the study of congenital malformations and developmental abnormalities.
teratomaA true neoplasm composed of different types of tissue, none of which is normally found the area in which the neoplasm occurs.
term birthchildbirth at the end of a normal duration of pregnancy, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation.
terti-third
test/itesticle
testicleThe testis and its ducts.
testisEither of the two male gonads located in the cavity of the scrotum.
testosteroneA hormone produced by the testicles. Responsible for maintaining muscle mass, bone density and sex drive.
TETtetralogy of Fallot
tetan/otetanus
tetanusAn acute, potentially fatal infection of the central nervous system caused by a powerful protein toxin produced by Clostridium tetani. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Also called lockjaw.
tetanyA disorder consisting of muscle spasms, cramps and twitching. Tetany usually results from hypocalcemia.
tetra-four
tetralogy of fallotTetralogy of Fallot is a rare congenital heart defect. It is a combination of four defects which result in oxygen-poor blood flow.
TFStesticular feminization syndrome
thalam/othalamus
thalamusPaired bodies containing mostly gray matter and forming part of the lateral wall of the third ventricle of the brain.
thalassemiaAn inherited blood disorder characterized by an abnormal form of hemoglobin.
thanat-death
thec-case, sheath
thecaA sheath, case or capsule.
thecomaA neoplasm derived from ovarian mesenchyme.
thel/enipple
thelarcheThe beginning of breast development at puberty.
thelo-nipple
therapeuticsProcedures concerned with the remedial treatment or prevention of diseases.
-therapytreatment
theri/oanimals, beasts
therm/oheat, temperature
thermoalgesiaAbnormal pain felt when part of the body is warmed.
thermogenesisThe generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature.
thermolysisDissipation of body heat by evaporation of sweat, radiation or other means.
thermophoreAny substance that retains heat for a long period of time.
thigm/otouch
thinkingThe act of reasoning. Cognition.
thio-presence of sulphur
thorac/ochest, pleural cavity
thoracentesisRemoval of fluid or air from the thoracic cavity, usually with a needle.
thoracicPertaining to the chest.
thoracic cavityThe region of the thorax that includes the pleural cavity and mediastinum.
thoracotomySurgical incision into the chest wall.
thoraxThe chest cavity. Principal organs are the heart and lungs.
-thoraxchest, pleural cavity
THRtotal hip replacement
thresholdThe point at which a stimulus produces a sensation or evokes a response.
thrillA vibratory, ringing sound. Sometimes used to describe a heart murmur.
thromb/oblood clot
thrombectomySurgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material from a blood vessel at the point of its formation.
thrombocytesPlatelets. A blood component helps to stop bleeding by clumping and clotting blood vessel injuries.
thrombocytopeniaA low level of blood platelets. Platelet count < 150,000/ml
thrombocytosisHigh blood platelet count. Platelet count > 450,000/ml
thrombolysisThe dissolution of a thrombus.
thrombolyticDissolving or breaking up a thrombus.
thrombophiliaA disorder of hemostasis in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of thrombosis.
thrombosisThe formation and development of a blood clot in a blood vessel.
thumbThe first digit on the radial side of the hand opposite the other four digits.
thym/othymus gland
thymectomySurgical removal of the thymus gland.
-thymiastate of mind
thymocytesLymphocyte arising in the thymus.
thymomaA neoplasm originating from thymic tissue, usually benign, and frequently encapsulated.
thymosinA hormone secreted by the thymus.
thymusAn organ that is part of the lymphatic system, in which T lymphocytes grow and multiply. The thymus is in the chest behind the breastbone.
thyr/othyroid gland
thyroidA highly vascularized endocrine gland that regulates metabolism. It consists of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the trachea.
thyroidectomySurgical removal of the thyroid gland.
thyroiditisInflammation of the thyroid gland.
thyroxineA hormone of the thyroid gland that stimulates the consumption of oxygen.
TIAtransient ischemic attack
tibi/otibia
tibiaThe medial and larger of the two bones of the lower leg, articulating with the fibula laterally, the talus distally, and the femur proximally.
tibialisThe of two muscles in the leg that extend from the tibia to the metatarsal bones of the foot.
-ticpertaining to
tickA blood-sucking acari parasite that penetrates the skin of their host by using a hooked mouth part.
ticsHabitual, repeated, rapid muscle movement or vocalization which are involuntary or semi voluntary.
tidal volumeThe volume of air inspired or expired in a single breath during normal breathing.
tinc.tincture
tineaA fungal skin infection, including ringworm, athlete's foot and jock itch.
tinnitusThe perception of sound in the head when no outside sound is present. Commonly called 'ringing in the ears'.
-tionprocess of
tissueA group of differentiated cells that perform a specific function. There are four basic tissues in the body: epithelium, connective (including bone, blood and cartilage), muscle and nerve.
titubationWalking with a staggering or stumbling gait.
TKOto keep open
TKRtotal knee replacement
TLCtotal lung capacity
TMtympanic membrane
TMJtemporomandibular joint
TNFtumor necrosis factor
TNMtumor, node, metastasis
toc/olabor, birth
-tociacondition of birth, labor
tom/osection, slice
-tomeinstrument to cut
tomographyImaging methods that shows a single plane (slice) of the body.
-tomycutting, incision
ton/otension, tone
tongueA muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. It is vital for chewing, swallowing and for speech.
tonicPertaining to normal muscle tone.
tonometryA test that measures intraocular pressure.
tonsill/otonsil
tonsillectomySurgical removal of a tonsil
tonsillitisInflammation of the tonsils, usually caused by bacterial infection.
tonsilsA pair of soft lymphoid tissue masses located at the rear of the throat. Part of the immune system.
toothOne of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
toothachePain in or around a tooth.
top.topically
top/oplace
topicalPertaining to a particular area.
topographyThe description of a body part in relation to surrounding structures.
torporA state of decreased activity characterized by depressed metabolism, reduced body temperature and low sensitivity to external stimuli.
torqueThe rotational force about an axis.
tors/otwisted
torsades de pointesA form of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia that is characterized by heart rate between 200 and 250 beats per minute, and QRS complexes with changing amplitude and twisting of the points.
torsionA twisting force.
torsoThe central part of the body to which the neck and limbs are attached.
touchSensations arising from making physical contact with objects. Tactile stimuli are detected by receptors in the skin and mucous membranes.
tourette syndromeA neuropsychological disorder appearing in childhood, marked by multiple motor and vocal tics occurring multiple times daily over a period of more than one year.
tourniquetA band for the compression of a blood vessel, used to stop bleeding or prevent spread of snake venom.
tox/opoison
toxemiaThe presence of bacterial toxins in the blood. Also called blood poisoning.
toxicityThe degree to which a substance is poisonous.
toxicologyThe science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
toxicosisA diseased condition due to poisoning.
toxinA poison produced by animals, plants or bacteria.
toxoidA preparation of poisonous materials made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis.
toxoplasmosisA parasitic infection by Toxoplasma gondii. Most infections are asymptomatic.
TPNtotal parenteral nutrition
TPRtemperature, pulse, and respiration
trache/otrachea (windpipe)
tracheaThe wind pipe. Cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
tracheostomySurgical creation of an opening into the trachea to insert a tube to facilitate breathing.
tracheotomySurgical incision of the trachea.
trachomaA chronic infection of the conjunctiva and cornea caused by chlamydia trachomatis.
tractotomySurgical incision of a nerve tract, usually to relieve pain.
tranceA sleeplike state of altered consciousness and diminution of motor activity,
tranquillizerA drug that reduces stress without diminishing mental clarity.
trans-across, through
transdermalEntering through the skin.
transducerAny device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form.
transectionCutting across the tissue of an organ.
transferenceThe unconscious transfer to others of feelings and attitudes which were originally associated with important figures in one's early life.
transfusionThe transfer of blood from one person to another.
transientShort lived.
transplantationTransference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
transudationPassage of a fluid or solute through a membrane.
transverseLying across the long axis. Crosswise.
transverse horizontal planeseparates the body's upper and lower sections
traumaPhysical or emotional injuries that are severe and of sudden onset.
trematodeAny of a large number of parasitic flatworms of the class Trematoda including flukes.
tremorInvoluntary shaking, quivering of body parts, commonly the extremities.
trench feverAn acute, infectious, bacterial infection characterized by intervals of chills and fever. Transmitted by body lice.
-tresiaperforation, opening
tri-three
triageThe process of classifying patients into groups based upon need and likely benefit of treatment
tricepsMuscle with three heads, particularly the muscle on the back of the upper arm that contracts to extend the forearm.
trich/ohair
trichiasisA condition of ingrown hair around an orifice, particularly ingrown eyelashes.
trichomoniasisA sexually transmitted disease caused by a single-celled protozoan parasite.
trichosporonosisFungal infections marked by fever or pneumonia.
trichotillomaniaCompulsion to pull out one's hair.
tricuspid valveThe heart valve located between the right atrium and right ventricle.
tricuspid valve regurgitationBack flow of blood from the right ventricle to the right atrium.
tricuspid valve stenosisThe narrowing of the tricuspid valve opening. Tricuspid valve stenosis is almost always due to rheumatic fever.
trigeminalPertaining to the fifth cranial nerve.
trigeminal neuralgiaAn inflammation of the trigeminal nerve causing extreme pain and muscle spasms in the face.
trigeminyA heart condition where an EKG can be grouped into three beat patterns.
trimesterAny of the three successive three month periods of pregnancy.
tripletOne of three offspring born at one birth.
-tripsyto crush
trismusLack of ability to open the mouth fully due to decreased range of motion of the muscles of mastication.
trop/oturn
troph/onourishment, development
-trophicfood, nutrition
-trophynourishment, development
-tropiaturn, deviation from normal
-tropicturning
tropismThe directional growth of an organism in towards or away from light, touch, or gravity.
trussesA supportive device designed for retaining a hernia in a reduced state within the abdominal cavity.
TSHthyroid-stimulating hormone
TSStoxic shock syndrome
tuberculomaA tumor-like mass resulting from the enlargement of a tuberculous lesion.
tuberculosisBacterial infection that usually affects the lungs.
tubuleA small tube.
tularemiaA plague-like disease of rodents, transmissible to humans, marked by fever, chills, headache, backache and weakness.
-tumescenceswelling
tumorA new growth of tissue in which cell multiplication is uncontrolled and progressive. A neoplasm.
TURtransurethral resection
TVtidal volume
twinsTwo individuals derived from two fetuses that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the uterus simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic or dizygotic.
Txtreatment
tympan/oeardrum
tympanic membraneA thin, oval, semitransparent membrane separating the external ear canal from the tympanic cavity (ear, middle).
tympanocentesisNeedle aspiration of fluid from the middle ear through a puncture in the tympanic membrane.
tympanometryA test that measures the movement of the tympanic membrane (eardrum).
-typeclass
typhlitisInflammation of the cecum.
typhoid feverAn acute bacterial infection transmitted by contaminated water, milk or other foods, especially shellfish.
typhusAny of a group of acute infectious diseases characterized by fever, chills, headache, malaise and rash. Usually transmitted from infected rats by lice, fleas, ticks and mites
tyr/ocheese

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