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Medical Dictionary - Endocrine


TermDefinition
ACadrenal cortex
acr/oextremities, top
acromegalyA hormonal disorder that results when the pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone.
ACTHadrenocorticotropic hormone
Addison diseaseA rare disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol and/or aldosterone.
aden/ogland
ADHantidiuretic hormone
adren/oadrenal glands
adrenalectomySurgical removal of one or both adrenal glands.
adrenalitisInflammation of the adrenal glands,
albuminuriaThe presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of kidney diseases.
aldosteroneA hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that acts on the kidneys to regulate electrolyte and water balance.
aldosteronismA disease that causes the adrenals to produce too much of the hormone aldosterone.
allopurinolA xanthine oxidase inhibitor that decreases uric acid production. Used to treat gout and kidney stones.
antidiabeticDrugs that help control diabetes mellitus.
antidiuretic hormoneA hormone produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the pituitary gland. This hormone controls the amount of water excreted in the urine.
AODMadult-onset diabetes mellitus
bacteriuriaThe presence of bacteria in the urine. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic.
blood glucoseThe concentration of glucose in the blood. Also called blood sugar. Measured regularly in diabetes patients.
blood sugarThe concentration of glucose in the blood. Measured regularly in diabetes patients.
calcitoninA hormone secreted by the thyroid gland. It helps regulate calcium levels.
Conn syndromeAssociated with increased secretion of the hormone aldosterone by the adrenal glands.
cortic/ocortex, outer section
cortisolThe primary stress hormone.
cretinismA congenital condition caused by a deficiency of thyroid hormone.
crin/osecrete
-crineto secrete
Cushing syndromeA condition when abnormally high levels of a hormone called cortisol are present.
DIdiabetes insipidus
diabetes insipidusA hormonal condition that causes the individual to have excessive and frequent urination. Inadequate ADH secretion.
diabetes mellitusA grouping of diseases that affect how the body uses glucose. Type I is lack of insulin, Type II is insulin resistance.
diabetic retinopathyThe most common diabetic eye disease. It occurs when blood vessels in the retina are damaged. Leading cause of blindness in working age adults.
-dipsiathirst
DKAdiabetic ketoacidosis
DMdiabetes mellitus
electrolytesMinerals in the blood and other body fluids that carry an electric charge.
endocrine systemThe system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system.
endocrinologyA subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the endocrine system.
epinephrineA hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal glands. Commonly called adrenaline.
estrogenHormones that are important for sexual and reproductive development in females.
exophthalmosA bulging eyeball, associated with hyperthyroidism.
FBSfasting blood sugar
follicle-stimulating hormoneA hormone released by the pituitary gland. It regulates the development, maturation and reproductive processes of the body.
FSHfollicle-stimulating hormone
GHgrowth hormone
gigantismAbnormal growth due to an excess of growth hormone during childhood.
glucagonA peptide hormone produced in the pancreas that opposes insulin.
gluco-relating to glucose
glucoseSugar in the blood that supplies energy to cells.
glyc/oglucose, sugar
GnRHgonadotropin-releasing hormone
goiterEnlargement of the thyroid gland causing a swelling in the front part of the neck.
Graves diseaseAn immune disease that causes hyperthyroidism.
GTTglucose tolerance test
gynecomastiaNon-cancerous swelling of the breast tissue in males due to an imbalance of hormones. Common in pre-adolescence, benign and self-limiting.
HCGhuman chorionic gonadotropin
HGFhuman growth factor
hypercalcemiaToo much calcium in the blood.
hyperglycemiaHigh blood sugar. A serious problem for diabetics.
hyperinsulinismAbnormally high levels of insulin in the blood.
hyperpituitarismExcessive hormone production by the pituitary gland.
hyperthyroidismExcessive hormone production by the thyroid.
hyperthyroxinemiaAbnormally elevated thyroxine level in the blood.
hypoglycemiaAbnormally low blood glucose (blood sugar) levels, usually less than 70 mg/dl.
ICSHinterstitial cell-stimulating hormone
IGTimpaired glucose tolerance
insulinA hormone produced in the pancreas. Regulates glucose levels.
insulinomaA neoplasm of the pancreas that is one of the chief causes of hypoglycemia.
JODjuvenile onset diabetes
laparoscopySurgery using a thin light tube inserted into a small incision.
leptinA hormone that regulates energy balance by helping control appetite.
LHluteinizing hormone
luteinizing hormoneA hormone released by the pituitary gland. It stimulates the secretion of sex hormones by the ovary and the testes and is involved in the maturation of spermatozoa and ova.
melatoninA hormone produced by the pineal gland. It plays a role in the regulation of sleep, mood, and reproduction.
MSHmelanocyte stimulating hormone
myx/omucus
NIDDMnoninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
norepinephrineA neurotransmitter that is secreted in response to stress, increasing blood pressure and glucose.
OXToxytocin
oxytocinA hormone secreted by the pituitary gland. It simulates contraction during labor and the production of milk.
pancreat/opancreas
pancreatitisInflammation in the pancreas.
parathyroidectomySurgical removal of one or more parathyroid glands.
pituitar/opituitary
pituitary adenomaBenign epithelia neoplasm of the pituitary.
pituitary glandA small, oval, unpaired, endocrine gland connected to the hypothalamus by a short stalk which is called the infundibulum. Its secretions control the other endocrine glands and influence growth, metabolism, and maturation.
polydipsiaExcessive thirst.
polyphagiaExcessive hunger or appetite.
prediabetesA condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal. Considered a warning sign for diabetes.
PRLprolactin
progesteroneA sex hormone produced by the ovaries.
prolactinomaA begin tumor of the pituitary gland overproduces a hormone called prolactin.
PTHparathyroid hormone
pubertyBecoming first capable of reproducing sexually.
SIADHsyndrome of inappropriate diuretic hormone
somatotrophsAnterior pituitary cells which produce growth hormone.
steroidsA hormone produced by the body. Also a drug used for treating swelling or to (illegally) improve athletic performance.
T3triiodothyronine
T4thyroxine
testosteroneA hormone produced by the testicles. Responsible for maintaining muscle mass, bone density and sex drive.
thalam/othalamus
thym/othymus gland
thymosinA hormone secreted by the thymus.
thyr/othyroid gland
thyroidA highly vascularized endocrine gland that regulates metabolism. It consists of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the trachea.
thyroidectomySurgical removal of the thyroid gland.
thyroiditisInflammation of the thyroid gland.
thyroxineA hormone of the thyroid gland that stimulates the consumption of oxygen.
TSHthyroid-stimulating hormone
vipomaAn endocrine tumor that secretes vasoactive intestinal peptide, that causes vasodilation, relaxation of smooth muscles, watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and hypochlorhydria.

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