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Medical Dictionary - Muscular


TermDefinition
abductionMovement of a limb away from the midline or axis of the body.
achilles tendonThe tendon connecting the muscles in the back of the calf to the calcaneus (heel bone).
actomyosinA protein complex of actin and myosin occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
adductionMovement of a limb toward the midline or axis of the body
adductorA muscle that moves a body part toward the midline or axis of the body.
adhesionBands of scar tissue that can develop after surgery.
ADLactivities of daily living
aerobicsSustained strenuous exercise that improves cardiovascular and respiratory fitness.
anconeusA small triangular muscle behind the elbow. Its function is to extend the forearm.
antispasmodicA drug used to treat smooth muscle spasms in the digestive system, uterus or urinary tract.
anxiety disordersA group of mental disorders characterized by feelings of anxiety and fear.
astasiaThe inability, without physical cause, to stand or sit without assistance.
asthen-weakness
ataxiaInability to coordinate voluntary muscle movements, not due to muscle weakness.
atonicWithout normal muscle tone or strength
atrophyDiminished size or wasting away of body tissue, for example muscles.
baclofenA muscle relaxing drug.
ballismAbnormal involuntary movements of the limbs.
bicepsA muscle having two heads. Commonly used to refer to the muscles that extend from the shoulder joint to the elbow.
bradykinesiaAbnormally slow body movement.
buttocksEither of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or hip consisting of gluteal muscles and fat.
carpal tunnel syndromeA common source of hand numbness and pain. Can be associated with repetitive occupational trauma, wrist injuries, rheumatoid arthritis, and pregnancy.
chronic fatigue syndromeA debilitating disorder characterized by extreme fatigue or tiredness that doesn't go away with rest.
circumductionA conical movement of a limb extending from the joint.
contractureA condition that occurs when normally elastic tissues are replaced by inelastic fiber-like tissue.
cool downGradually decreasing heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate and body temperature after exercise.
dantroleneMuscle relaxant drug.
deltoidThick triangular muscle in the shoulder whose function is to abduct, flex, and extend the arm.
desm/oligament
dorsiflexionThe movement of the ankle joint that brings the dorsal (top region) of the foot towards the shin.
DTRdeep tendon reflex
dyskinesiaInvoluntary muscle movements of the face, trunk, neck and extremities and difficulty with voluntary movements. Often associated with the use of certain medications.
dystoniaA disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions that cause slow repetitive movements or abnormal postures.
dystrophyAny abnormal condition caused by defective nutrition
electromyographyA test of the health of the muscles and the nerves that control the muscles.
EMGelectromyography
EOMextraocular muscles
epicondylitisTennis elbow. Occurs from partial or complete tears of the tendons of the forearm, or from overuse, a strain.
epimysiumThe fibrous connective tissue surrounding a skeletal muscle.
ergo-work, energy
ergonomicsDesign work that reduces stress and eliminates injuries associated with the overuse of muscles, bad posture and repeated tasks.
extensorAny muscle that extends a limb or other body part.
fasci/ofascia (layer of fibrous tissue)
fasciitisInflammation of the fascia, which is the connective tissue surrounding muscles, blood vessels and nerves.
fibr/ofiber
fibromyalgiaA common, chronic disorder characterized by widespread pain, diffuse tenderness, chronic fatigue, and other symptoms.
flex/obend
flexorAny muscle that causes a limb to bend.
ganglion cystSwelling or tumor on a joint or tendon sheath due to trauma.
heel spurA bony outgrowth on the lower surface of the heel bone.
hemiparesisWeakness or paralysis of the entire left or right side of the body. Caused by congenital conditions, trauma, stroke or tumors.
hemiplegiaParalysis of one side of the body.
herni/ohernia
herniaAbnormal protrusion of tissue, structure, or part of an organ through the bone, muscular tissue, or the membrane by which it is normally contained.
hyperkinesiaSpontaneous involuntary movements.
hyperkinesisExcessive movement of muscles of the body.
hypotoniaPoor muscle tone usually detected at birth or during infancy. It is reflected in the APGAR score.
IMintramuscular
impingement syndromeThe result of chronic and repetitive compression of the rotator-cuff tendons in the shoulder.
intermittent claudicationMuscle pain caused by too little blood flow, usually during exercise.
intrinsic muscleA muscle whose origin and insertion are both in the same part or organ.
isotonic contractionMuscle contraction with negligible change in the force of contraction but shortening of the distance between the origin and insertion.
kinesi/omovement
lei/osmooth
leiomy/osmooth (visceral) muscle
ligligament
masseter muscleThe thick rectangular muscle in the cheek that functions to close the jaw.
MDmuscular dystrophy
muscul/omuscle
muscular dystrophiesA heterogeneous group of inherited myopathies, characterized by wasting and weakness of the skeletal muscle.
muscular dystrophyA group of over thirty genetic diseases characterized by progressive degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement.
my/omuscle
myalgiaMuscle pain.
myasthenia gravisA chronic autoimmune disease characterized by weakness of the skeletal muscles.
myoceleProtrusion of muscle substance through a hole in its sheath
myoclonusSudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle.
myofascial releasePhysical therapy used to treat chronic pain in the tissues that surround and support muscles.
myogenicOriginating in the muscles.
myolysisBreakdown of muscle tissue.
myomaA benign neoplasm of the muscles.
myoparesisSlight muscle paralysis.
myorrhaphySuture of muscle tissue or a muscle wound.
myositisInflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
myotoniaTonic muscle spasm or muscular rigidity.
myotonicPertaining to muscle tone.
neuromuscularDisorders that affect the nerves that control voluntary muscles.
NMJneuromuscular junction
nocturnal myoclonusA sleep disorder where the patient moves involuntarily during sleep. Also called periodic limb movement disorder.
obliqueA slanting direction.
obturator muscleEither of the two muscles that cover the outer surface of the anterior wall of the pelvis, responsible for rotating the thighs outward.
paralysisLoss of muscle function.
paraplegiaParalysis affecting the legs.
pectoralRelating to the thorax.
pectus carinatumThe chest or breast.
pelvic floorThe connective tissues and muscles that lie beneath and support the perineum and pelvis. It extends between the pubic bone anteriorly and the coccyx posteriorly.
physiatristA doctor specializing in the physiological treatment of patients with conditions affecting movement. Often used in stroke rehabilitation.
plantar fasciitisIrritation of the connective tissue that runs from the heel to the base of the toes. Also known as :postman's heel".
polymyositisInflammation of the muscles or associated tissues, such as the blood vessels that supply the muscles
pronationThe inward roll of the foot (medial malleolus) while walking or running.
-pterygiumabnormality of conjunctiva
pyg/obuttocks
pyomyositisAn acute, intramuscular suppuration of the large skeletal muscle groups.
quadriceps muscleThe quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh.
quadriplegiaParalysis that results in the partial or total loss of use of all four limbs and torso.
rhabdomy/ostriated muscle
rhabdomyomaA rare, benign neoplasm derived from striated muscle.
rhabdomyosarcomaMalignant neoplasm derived from skeletal (striated) muscle.
RICErest, ice, compression, elevation
rotator cuffThe musculotendinous sheath formed by the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor muscles. These help stabilize the head of the humerus in the glenoid fossa and allow for rotation of the shoulder joint about its longitudinal axis.
-rrhexisrupture
RSIrepetitive stress injury
sarcocystosisInfection of the striated muscle of mammals by parasites of the genus Sarcocystis. Often asymptomatic, but symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, and paralysis.
sarcopeniaA disease associated with aging resulting in loss of muscle mass and strength.
sartoriusThe thin, long, diagonal, strap-like anterior thigh muscle extending from the pelvis to the calf of the leg.
shin splintInflammation of the muscles, tendons, and bone tissue around the tibia.
shiveringInvoluntary contraction or twitching of the muscles due to cold or fear.
singultusHiccups.
soleusA flat, broad muscle in the calf of the leg.
spasmAn involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles.
spasmo-spasm
spasmodic torticollisA very painful condition in which neck muscles contract involuntarily causing the head to twist, bend or rotate to one side.
sphincterA ring-link muscle that constrictions a natural body passage or orifice and which relaxes as needed. Present in the rectum and urinary tract.
sprainAn injury caused by tearing of the fibers of a ligament.
sthen/ostrength
strainOverstretching or overexertion of a part of the musculature.
-stromaconnective or supportive tissue of an organ
syndesm/oligament
tax/oorder, coordination
ten/otendon
tendin/otendon
tendinousRelating to tendons.
tensorAny muscle that causes stretching or tension of a body part.
tetanyA disorder consisting of muscle spasms, cramps and twitching. Tetany usually results from hypocalcemia.
tibialisThe of two muscles in the leg that extend from the tibia to the metatarsal bones of the foot.
ton/otension, tone
tonicPertaining to normal muscle tone.
tremorInvoluntary shaking, quivering of body parts, commonly the extremities.
tri-three
tricepsMuscle with three heads, particularly the muscle on the back of the upper arm that contracts to extend the forearm.

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