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Body System: ENDOCRINE

AC: adrenal cortex

acr/o: extremities, top

acromegaly: A hormonal disorder that results when the pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone.

ACTH: adrenocorticotropic hormone

Addison disease: A rare disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol and/or aldosterone.

aden/o: gland

ADH: antidiuretic hormone

adren/o: adrenal glands

adrenalectomy: Surgical removal of one or both adrenal glands.

adrenalitis: Inflammation of the adrenal glands,

albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of kidney diseases.

aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that acts on the kidneys to regulate electrolyte and water balance.

aldosteronism: A disease that causes the adrenals to produce too much of the hormone aldosterone.

allopurinol: A xanthine oxidase inhibitor that decreases uric acid production. Used to treat gout and kidney stones.

antidiabetic: Drugs that help control diabetes mellitus.

antidiuretic hormone: A hormone produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the pituitary gland. This hormone controls the amount of water excreted in the urine.

AODM: adult-onset diabetes mellitus

bacteriuria: The presence of bacteria in the urine. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic.

blood glucose: The concentration of glucose in the blood. Also called blood sugar. Measured regularly in diabetes patients.

blood sugar: The concentration of glucose in the blood. Measured regularly in diabetes patients.

calcitonin: A hormone secreted by the thyroid gland. It helps regulate calcium levels.

Conn syndrome: Associated with increased secretion of the hormone aldosterone by the adrenal glands.

cortic/o: cortex, outer section

cortisol: The primary stress hormone.

cretinism: A congenital condition caused by a deficiency of thyroid hormone.

crin/o: secrete

-crine: to secrete

Cushing syndrome: A condition when abnormally high levels of a hormone called cortisol are present.

DI: diabetes insipidus

diabetes insipidus: A hormonal condition that causes the individual to have excessive and frequent urination. Inadequate ADH secretion.

diabetes mellitus: A grouping of diseases that affect how the body uses glucose. Type I is lack of insulin, Type II is insulin resistance.

diabetic retinopathy: The most common diabetic eye disease. It occurs when blood vessels in the retina are damaged. Leading cause of blindness in working age adults.

-dipsia: thirst

DKA: diabetic ketoacidosis

DM: diabetes mellitus

electrolytes: Minerals in the blood and other body fluids that carry an electric charge.

endocrine system: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system.

endocrinology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the endocrine system.

epinephrine: A hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal glands. Commonly called adrenaline.

estrogen: Hormones that are important for sexual and reproductive development in females.

exophthalmos: A bulging eyeball, associated with hyperthyroidism.

FBS: fasting blood sugar

follicle-stimulating hormone: A hormone released by the pituitary gland. It regulates the development, maturation and reproductive processes of the body.

FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone

GH: growth hormone

gigantism: Abnormal growth due to an excess of growth hormone during childhood.

glucagon: A peptide hormone produced in the pancreas that opposes insulin.

gluco-: relating to glucose

glucose: Sugar in the blood that supplies energy to cells.

glyc/o: glucose, sugar

GnRH: gonadotropin-releasing hormone

goiter: Enlargement of the thyroid gland causing a swelling in the front part of the neck.

Graves disease: An immune disease that causes hyperthyroidism.

GTT: glucose tolerance test

gynecomastia: Non-cancerous swelling of the breast tissue in males due to an imbalance of hormones. Common in pre-adolescence, benign and self-limiting.

HCG: human chorionic gonadotropin

HGF: human growth factor

hypercalcemia: Too much calcium in the blood.

hyperglycemia: High blood sugar. A serious problem for diabetics.

hyperinsulinism: Abnormally high levels of insulin in the blood.

hyperpituitarism: Excessive hormone production by the pituitary gland.

hyperthyroidism: Excessive hormone production by the thyroid.

hyperthyroxinemia: Abnormally elevated thyroxine level in the blood.

hypoglycemia: Abnormally low blood glucose (blood sugar) levels, usually less than 70 mg/dl.

ICSH: interstitial cell-stimulating hormone

IGT: impaired glucose tolerance

insulin: A hormone produced in the pancreas. Regulates glucose levels.

insulinoma: A neoplasm of the pancreas that is one of the chief causes of hypoglycemia.

JOD: juvenile onset diabetes

laparoscopy: Surgery using a thin light tube inserted into a small incision.

leptin: A hormone that regulates energy balance by helping control appetite.

LH: luteinizing hormone

luteinizing hormone: A hormone released by the pituitary gland. It stimulates the secretion of sex hormones by the ovary and the testes and is involved in the maturation of spermatozoa and ova.

melatonin: A hormone produced by the pineal gland. It plays a role in the regulation of sleep, mood, and reproduction.

MSH: melanocyte stimulating hormone

myx/o: mucus

NIDDM: noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

norepinephrine: A neurotransmitter that is secreted in response to stress, increasing blood pressure and glucose.

OXT: oxytocin

oxytocin: A hormone secreted by the pituitary gland. It simulates contraction during labor and the production of milk.

pancreat/o: pancreas

pancreatitis: Inflammation in the pancreas.

parathyroidectomy: Surgical removal of one or more parathyroid glands.

pituitar/o: pituitary

pituitary adenoma: Benign epithelia neoplasm of the pituitary.

pituitary gland: A small, oval, unpaired, endocrine gland connected to the hypothalamus by a short stalk which is called the infundibulum. Its secretions control the other endocrine glands and influence growth, metabolism, and maturation.

polydipsia: Excessive thirst.

polyphagia: Excessive hunger or appetite.

prediabetes: A condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal. Considered a warning sign for diabetes.

PRL: prolactin

progesterone: A sex hormone produced by the ovaries.

prolactinoma: A begin tumor of the pituitary gland overproduces a hormone called prolactin.

PTH: parathyroid hormone

puberty: Becoming first capable of reproducing sexually.

SIADH: syndrome of inappropriate diuretic hormone

somatotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells which produce growth hormone.

steroids: A hormone produced by the body. Also a drug used for treating swelling or to (illegally) improve athletic performance.

T3: triiodothyronine

T4: thyroxine

testosterone: A hormone produced by the testicles. Responsible for maintaining muscle mass, bone density and sex drive.

thalam/o: thalamus

thym/o: thymus gland

thymosin: A hormone secreted by the thymus.

thyr/o: thyroid gland

thyroid: A highly vascularized endocrine gland that regulates metabolism. It consists of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the trachea.

thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland.

thyroiditis: Inflammation of the thyroid gland.

thyroxine: A hormone of the thyroid gland that stimulates the consumption of oxygen.

TSH: thyroid-stimulating hormone

vipoma: An endocrine tumor that secretes vasoactive intestinal peptide, that causes vasodilation, relaxation of smooth muscles, watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and hypochlorhydria.
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