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Body System: EYES AND EARS

abducens nerve: A small cranial nerve which originates in the pons and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the eye. It provides horizontal eye movement control.

acou-: hear

adnexa: Appendages of an organ (e.g. eyelids to the eyeball)

alacrima: Dry eye.

amaurosis: Partial or complete blindness caused by a disease.

ambly/o: dull, dim

amblyopia: Decrease of vision due to abnormal development during childhood. Also known as lazy eye.

ametropia: An eye problem caused by faulty refraction.

anisocoria: Unequal pupil sizes. Affects 20% of the population.

anterior chamber: The space between the cornea and the iris, filled with aqueous humor.

aphakia: Absence of the eye's lens.

aqueous humor: The clear, watery fluid circulating in the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye.

ARMD: age-related macular degeneration

Ast: astigmatism

astigmatism: A common and generally easily treatable imperfection in the curvature of the eye.

audi/o: hearing

audiology: The study of hearing and hearing impairment.

audiometry: A noninvasive test that measures the ability to hear different tones and intensities.

aur/o: ear

aural: Refers to the ear or hearing.

basilar membrane: A basement membrane in the cochlea that supports the hair cells of the organ of Corti.

biconcave: Concave on both sides, as in a lens design.

biconvex: Convex on both sides, particularly in a lens design.

binaural: Relating to the use of both ears.

binocular: Relating to the use of both eyes.

blephar/o: eyelid

blepharitis: Inflammation of the eyelids.

blepharoplasty: Cosmetic eyelid surgery. Also called eyelid lift.

blepharospasm: Spasmodic winking caused by the involuntary contraction of an eyelid muscle.

blindness: The inability to see.

blinking: Brief closing and reopening of the eyelids by involuntary or voluntary action.

cerumen: The yellow or brown waxy secretions produced by sweat glands in the external ear canal. Earwax.

cerumin/o: earwax

chalazion: A small bump on the eyelid that forms due to blockage and swelling of an oil gland at the base of the eyelash.

choroid: The thin, highly vascular layer between the retina and sclera.

choroiditis: Inflammation of the choroid layer of the eye.

cochle/o: cochlea (inner part of ear)

cochlea: The part of the inner ear (labyrinth) that is concerned with hearing.

cochlear implant: An electronic device that provides a sense of sound to deaf or severely hard of hearing people.

color blindness: A weakness or inability to distinguish colors. A common form is the inability to distinguish red from green.

conjunctiv/o: mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of eyelids

conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.

conjunctivitis: An inflammation of the clear tissue that lines the white part of the eye. Also called pink eye.

cor/o: pupil

corne/o: cornea

cornea: The transparent, convex, anterior part of eye. It is the main refractory structure of the eye.

corneal edema: An excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity.

-cusis: hearing

dacry/o: tears

dacryoadenitis: Inflammation of the lacrimal glands (the eye’s tear-producing glands).

dacryocystitis: Inflammation of the lacrimal sac.

dark adaptation: Adjustment of the retina and pupil of the eyes under conditions of low light enabling increased sensitivity to light.

dB: decibel

deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.

diopter: A unit of measurement of the refractive power of a lens.

diplopia: Double vision.

dry eye syndrome: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production.

ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. Sound vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the acoustic nerve to the central nervous system. The inner ear contains the vestibular organ that responsible for equilibrium.

earache: Pain in the ear.

ectropion: A condition where the lower eyelid droops away from the eye and turns outwards.

EENT: eye, ear, nose, and throat

Em: emmetropia

emmetropia: A state when rays are focused correctly on the retina of a relaxed eye.

entropion: The eyelid is rolled inward toward the eye.

epiphora: Overflow of tears due to obstruction of the lacrimal duct.

episclera: The loose connective tissue between the sclera and the conjunctiva.

episcleritis: An inflammation of the sclera, causing redness of the eye.

esotropia: An inward turning of one or both eyes.

exotropia: One or both of the eyes turn outward.

eye: The organ of vision.

eyebrow: The bony ridge extending over the eye and the row of hair located on it.

eyelashes: The hairs which project from the edges of the eyelids.

eyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of skin which cover the eye when closed.

floater: A speck or string that appears to be drifting across the eye just outside the line of vision.

fluorescein angiography: An eye test that uses a special dye and camera to look at blood flow in the retina and choroid.

focus: The point at which rays of line converge after passing through a lens.

glare: A bright, dazzling light which produces discomfort and impairs vision.

glaucoma: A disease that damages the optic nerve. Often caused by abnormally high pressure in the eye.

HD: hearing distance

hearing: The ability to perceive sounds.

hemianopia: The loss of part of the field of view on the same side, in both eyes. A common side effect of stroke or brain injury.

heterophoria: A tendency for deviation of the eyes from parallelism, prevented by binocular vision.

hippus: Rhythmic pupillary dilation and constriction, independent of changes in illumination or convergence.

hordeolum: Blockage of an eyelid gland causing a small inflamed cyst at the lid margin. Also called a stye.

hygr/o: moisture

hyperopia: Farsightedness. Distant objects can be seen clearly, but close ones do not come into proper focus.

hyphema: Bleeding in the anterior chamber of the eye.

infectious myringitis: An infection causing painful blisters on the eardrum. More often seen in children than adults. Causal agent is Mycoplasma.

irid/o: iris

iridectomy: Surgical removal of part of the iris.

iridoplegia: Paralysis of the sphincter muscle of the iris or the dilator muscle

iris: The circular pigmented membrane behind the cornea of the eye that gives the eye its color. The iris surrounds a central opening called the pupil.

iritis: Inflammation of the iris.

kerat/o: cornea, horny, hard

keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea

keratoconjunctivitis: Inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.

keratoconus: A conical protrusion of the central part of the cornea.

labyrinth: A complex system of ducts and cavities that comprise the organs of hearing and balance.

labyrinth/o: inner ear

labyrinthectomy: An ear operation used for Meniere's syndrome.

labyrinthitis: Inflammation of the inner ear (labyrinth).

lacrim/o: tears

lacrimation: Crying.

laser trabeculoplasty: Using a very focused beam of light to treat the drainage angle of the eye.

logad/o: whites of the eyes

macul/o: spot

macula lutea: An oval, yellow spot in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery.

macular: Denoting the central retina.

macular degeneration: Degenerative changes in the retina usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field.

maculopathy: Any pathologic condition of the macula lutea.

malleus: The largest and outermost of the three ossicles of the ear. Also called hammer.

mastoidectomy: Surgical removal of mastoid air cells in the hollow, air-filled spaces in the skull behind the ear.

mastoiditis: Inflammation of the mastoid air cells It is usually a complication of otitis media.

meibomian glands: The small sebaceous glands located on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and conjunctiva.

miosis: Excessive pupillary constriction.

miotics: Drugs causing contraction of the pupil.

My: myopia

mydriasis: Abnormal dilation of the pupil.

myopia: Nearsightedness. A condition where close objects appear clearly, but distant objects appear blurry.

myring/o: tympanic membrane (eardrum)

myringitis: Inflammation of the eardrum.

myringotomy: Surgical incision in the eardrum to relieve fluid pressure.

nasolacrimal duct: A tubular duct that conveys tears from the lacrimal gland to the nose.

nictation: A reflex that closes and opens the eyes rapidly. Blinking.

night blindness: Failure or reduced ability to see in dim light.

nyctalopia: Night blindness.

nystagmus: A vision condition in which the eyes make repetitive, uncontrolled movements, usually side to side.

ocul/o: eye

ocular absorption: Uptake of substances by tissues of the eye.

ocular hypertension: A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.

ocular hypotension: Abnormally low intraocular pressure often related to chronic inflammation.

oculomotor: Pertaining to or affecting eye movements.

ophry/o: eyebrow

ophthalm/o: eye

ophthalmia: Severe inflammation of the eye.

ophthalmic: Pertaining to the eye.

ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of eye defects and diseases.

ophthalmoplegia: Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles.

ophthalmoscopy: An examination of the back part of the eye (fundus), which includes the retina, optic disc, choroid, and blood vessels.

-opia: vision condition

opt/o: eye, vision

optic nerve: The second cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the retina to the brain.

optic neuritis: Inflammation of the optic nerve.

optic tract: Nerve fiber originating from the optic chiasm that connects predominantly to the lateral geniculate bodies. it is the continuation of the visual pathway that conveys the visual information originally from the retina to the optic chiasm via the optic nerves.

optometry: The professional practice of primary eye and vision care that includes the measurement of visual refractive power and the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.

orbital myositis: Inflammation of the extraocular muscle of the eye. It is characterized by swelling.

ossicle: A small bone, especially of the middle ear.

ot/o: ear, hearing

otalgia: Ear ache.

otitis: Inflammation of the ear, which may be marked by pain, fever, hearing disorders and vertigo.

otitis media: An ear infection of the middle ear, the area just behind the eardrum.

otolaryngology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the ear, nose, and throat.

otology: The study of diseases of the ear.

otomycosis: A fungal infection of the external auditory canal.

otopyorrhea: Discharge of pus from ear.

otorrhea: Ear discharge.

otosclerosis: A disease of the bones of the middle and inner ear.

otoscope: An instrument designed to inspect the ear.

palpebr/o: eyelid

panuveitis: Inflammation of both the anterior and posterior segments of the uvea tract.

papilledema: Swelling of the optic disk due to increased intracranial pressure.

PD (2): pupillary distance

periorbital edema: A condition in which the tissues around the eyes become swollen. Puffy eyes.

PERRLA: pupils equal, regular, react to light and accommodation

phac/o: pertaining to lens

phak/o: pertaining to lens

phot/o: light

photalgia: Pain in the eye causes by bright light.

photophobia: Abnormal sensitivity to light.

photoretinitis: Injury to the retina of the eye caused by looking directly into the sun without protection.

presbycusis: Hearing loss that gradually occurs in most individuals as they grow older.

presbyopia: An age-related condition when the eye's lens doesn't change shape as easily as it once did

proptosis: Protrusion or bulging of the eye.

pseudophakia: Presence of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction.

ptosis: Drooping of the upper eyelid.

pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.

pupill/o: pupil

radial keratotomy: A surgical procedure used to decrease nearsightedness.

retin/o: retina

retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. The innermost layer of the eye, which receives images transmitted through the lens and contains the receptors for vision, the rods and cones

retinitis: Inflammation of the retina.

retinopexy: A surgery for certain types of retinal detachments.

saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.

saccule: One of the two membranous sacs within the vestibule of the inner ear. It contains fluid, responses to gravity and provides the brain with information about head position.

scler/o: white of eye, hard

sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer envelope of the eyeball, covering it entirely except the cornea.

scleritis: A severe, vision-threatening inflammation of the white part of the eye.

scot/o: darkness

scotoma: An area of diminished vision within the visual field.

scotopic: Pertaining to the adjustment of the eye to low illumination.

semicircular canals: Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are concerned with balance.

sensorineural hearing loss: Loss of hearing resulting from problems in the inner ear. A common hearing impairment.

snow blindness: A painful eye condition caused by exposure of insufficiently protected eyes to ultraviolet (UV) rays. Also called photokeratitis.

son/o: sound

staped/o: stapes (a middle ear bone)

stapedectomy: Surgical removal of the stapes.

stapes: One of the three ossicles of the middle ear. It transmits sound vibrations from the incus to the internal ear.

strabismus: A condition that causes crossed eyes.

stye: Acute bacterial inflammation of a gland at the base of an eyelash.

tarsorrhaphy: Joining of part or all of the upper and lower eyelids so as to partially or completely close the eye.

tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the conjunctiva and cornea.

tectorial membrane: A membrane, present in the cochlea of the inner ear, that runs parallel with the basilar membrane.

tinnitus: The perception of sound in the head when no outside sound is present. Commonly called 'ringing in the ears'.

TM: tympanic membrane

tonometry: A test that measures intraocular pressure.

trachoma: A chronic infection of the conjunctiva and cornea caused by chlamydia trachomatis.

trichiasis: A condition of ingrown hair around an orifice, particularly ingrown eyelashes.

trop/o: turn

-tropic: turning

tympan/o: eardrum

tympanic membrane: A thin, oval, semitransparent membrane separating the external ear canal from the tympanic cavity (ear, middle).

tympanocentesis: Needle aspiration of fluid from the middle ear through a puncture in the tympanic membrane.

tympanometry: A test that measures the movement of the tympanic membrane (eardrum).

uve/o: uvea

uveal: Pertaining to the uvea.

uveitis: Inflammation of the uvea.

VA: visual acuity

vertigo: A feeling of dizziness and disorientation.

Vf (2): field of vision

vitre/o: vitreous body

vitrectomy: Surgery to remove vitreous gel from the eye.

vitreous body: The transparent, semi gelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the crystalline lens of the eye and in front of the retina.

xerophthalmia: Severe dry eyes caused by a malfunction of the tear glands.
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