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Body System: REPRODUCTIVE




abortifacient: An agent, usually a medication, that causes abortion.

acrosome: The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of spermatozoon. It contains enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg.

adrenarche: A development stage when the adrenal glands mature, leading to the increased production of adrenal androgens, dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione. Adrenarche usually begins at about 7 or 8 years of age before the signs of puberty and continues throughout puberty.

AFP: alpha-fetoprotein

afterbirth: The placenta, umbilical cord and membranes that are expelled from the uterus after birth

amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.

amni/o: amnion, sac around embryo

amniocentesis: Diagnostic test for chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections. A small amount of fluid is removed from the amniotic sac.

amniotic fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that surrounds the fetus, protecting it from injury.

andr/o: male

androgen: Steroid hormones that stimulate development of male reproductive organs, beard growth, voice changes and muscles.

andropause: Male menopause.

androsterone: A metabolite of testosterone or androstenedione.

anovulation: Suspension or cessation of ovulation by the ovaries.

antepartal care: Health care provided during pregnancy.

Apgar score: Newborn health assessment score (0-10).
Two points each: Appearance of skin color, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration.

aphrodisiac: An agent that stimulates sexual desire.

aplasia: Defective development of an organ or tissue.

areola: A ring of pigmented skin surrounding a nipple.

ASC-US: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance

aspermia: A condition characterized by the complete absence of semen.

ateliosis: A form of dwarfism.

azoospermia: A complete absence of sperm in the ejaculate.

balan/o: glans penis

balanitis: Inflammation of the glans penis.

balanoposthitis: Inflammation of the glans penis in uncircumcised males.

bisexuality: An individual who is sexually attracted to both sexes.

BPH: benign prostatic hyperplasia

breast: A mammary gland of women.

breastfeeding: Feeding a baby milk from the breast.

BSE: breast self-examination

castration: Removal of the sex glands.

caul: Amniotic sac that encloses the fetus.

-cele: swelling, hernia

cervical dysplasia: The abnormal growth of precancerous cells on the surface of the cervix.

cervicitis: An inflammation of the cervix

cervix uteri: The neck portion of the uterus between the lower isthmus and the vagina forming the cervical canal.

cesarean section: A surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus, performed to deliver a fetus.

chlamydia: A common sexually transmitted disease.

chordoma: A rare, malignant tumor that develops from the embryonic remains of the notochord.

chori/o: chorion (outer fetal sac)

chorion: The embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. The chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the placenta.

chorionic villus sampling: A prenatal diagnostic test to detect chromosomal problems

circumcision: Surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis.

clitoris: An erectile structure homologous with the penis, situated beneath the anterior labial commissure, partially hidden between the anterior ends of the labia minora.

coitus: Sexual intercourse.

colostrum: Milk produced in late pregnancy. High in protein and antibody content.

colp/o: vagina

colposcopy: The examination of the cervix and vagina by means of an endoscope introduced vaginally.

colpotomy: An incision in the vagina.

conception: When a spermatozoon enters an ovum. The beginning of pregnancy.

condom: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sex in order to prevent pregnancy or the spread of sexually transmitted disease.

consanguinity: Kinship. The hereditary relationship between persons.

contraception: Prevention of impregnation.

contraction: A shortening or increase in tension. In labor, the rhythmic tightening of the uterus.

copulation: Sexual union.

culd/o: cul-de-sac

-cyesis: pregnancy

D&C: dilatation and curettage

decidua: The membrane lining the wall of the uterus during pregnancy.

DUB: dysfunctional uterine bleeding

dysmenorrhea: Painful cramps that can occur immediately before or during the menstrual period.

dystocia: Difficult childbirth.

eclampsia: A toxic disorder characterized by convulsions and possibly coma during or immediately after pregnancy

ectopic pregnancy: When a fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus.

ED (2): erectile dysfunction

EDD: estimated date of delivery

egg: A female reproductive cell prior to fertilization.

ejaculation: The sudden emission of semen from the male urethra.

embryo: Any organism in the earliest stages of development.

embryo-: related to embryo

embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.

endocervicitis: Inflammation of the mucous lining of the uterine cervix.

endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.

endometri/o: endometrium (mucous membrane lining the uterus)

endometriosis: A painful, chronic disease where the tissue that normally grows inside the uterus grows outside it. May spread anywhere in the abdominal cavity.

epididym/o: epididymis (structure within the scrotum that stores sperm)

epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the testis.

epididymitis: Inflammation of the epididymis.

episi/o: vulva

episiotomy: An incision made in the perineum to widens the opening of the vagina during childbirth.

erectile dysfunction: The consistent inability in the male to sustain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse. Impotence.

fallopian tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals that conduct the ovum from the ovary to the uterus.

fet/o: fetus

fetal: Of, pertaining to, or having the character of a fetus.

fetus: The embryo of a mammal in the later stages of development

FHR: fetal heart rate

fibroadenoma: Benign tumors composed of stromal and epithelial tissue.

fibrocystic breast disease: A painful, lumpy breast disease.

FTND: full term normal delivery

FTT: failure to thrive

galact/o: milk

galactorrhea: Inappropriate lactation.

galactose: One of the two simple sugars in the protein, lactose, found in milk. The other sugar is glucose.

gamete: A mature sex cell.

GC: gonorrhea

GDM: gestational diabetes mellitus

gene: A unit of inheritance carrying a single trait occupying a certain location on a chromosome.

genetic: Pertaining to reproduction or to birth or origin.

genit/o: reproduction

genitalia: The male and female reproductive organs.

gest/o: to bear

gestation: The time period of development from fertilization to birth.

gon-: seed, genital

gonad/o: sex glands

gonadal: Pertaining to or arising from a gonad.

gonads: The sex glands, ovary or testis.

gonorrhea: A sexually transmitted bacterial disease, mostly seen in young adults.

grav: gravida

gravid/o: pregnancy

-gravida: pregnant

gravidity: Pregnant.

GYN: gynecology

gynec/o: woman, female

gynecology: The branch of medicine dealing with diseases unique to women, especially those of the genital tract and breasts.

gyno-: woman

hematocolpos: An accumulation of menstrual blood in the vagina.

hematometra: An accumulation of menstrual blood in the uterus.

hematospermia: Blood in the semen.

hemospermia: Blood in the semen, often due to inflammation of the prostate or the seminal vesicles.

heredity: The transmission of traits encoded in genes from parent to offspring.

heterosexuality: The sexual attraction between members of the opposite sex.

heterosis: Greater vigor of the first generation hybrid than is shown by either parent.

HGSIL: high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

homosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same sex.

HRT: hormone replacement therapy

HSIL: high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

HSV: herpes simplex virus

hydrocele: Buildup of the normal fluid around the testicle, common in infants, self-resolving.

hymen: A thin fold of mucous membrane situated at the orifice of the vagina.

hymen/o: membrane

hypogonadism: Abnormally low functional activity of the gonads, with diminished growth and sexual development

hypomenorrhea: Extremely light menstrual blood flow.

hyster/o: uterus

hysterectomy: Surgical removal of the uterus.

hysterosalpingography: Fluoroscopic examination of the uterus and fallopian tubes.

hysteroscopy: Examination of the uterine cavity using an endoscope.

hysterotomy: An incision in the uterus, performed through either the abdomen or the vagina.

IDM: infants of diabetic mothers

impotence: The inability to sustain a penile erection to allow normal vaginal intercourse.

in vitro: In a glass. In an artificial environment outside a living organism

induction: Causing to occur.

infertility: Inability to conceive and produce viable offspring.

inguinal canal: A tunnel in the abdominal wall through which a testis descends into the scrotum.

insemination: The deposit of seminal fluid within the vagina.

intrauterine: Within the uterine cavity.

IUCD: intrauterine contraceptive device

IUD: intrauterine device

IUFD: intrauterine fetal distress

IUP: intrauterine pregnancy

IVF: in vitro fertilization

L&D: labor and delivery

labor: The childbirth process of expulsion of the fetus and placenta from the uterus.

lact/o: milk

lactation: Production of milk by the mammary glands.

lacti-: milk

LBW: low birth weight

lecith/o: yolk, ovum

leiomyoma: A benign neoplasm derived from smooth muscle tissue, also known as a fibroid tumor. They usually occur in the uterus.

leukorrhea: Normal vaginal discharge during pregnancy . It is thin, white, milky and mild smelling.

libido: Sexual desire.

-lipsis: omit, fail

lmp: last menstrual period

lochia: A vaginal discharge occurring during the first week or two after childbirth.

mamm-: breast

mamm/o: breast

mammary gland: Milk producing gland.

mammoplasty: Plastic surgery of the breasts.

mast/o: breast

mastalgia: Breast pain.

mastopexy: Breast lift surgery.

men/o: menstruation, menses

menarche: The first menstrual period.

menopause: The permanent cessation of menstruation.

menorrhagia: Excessive uterine bleeding during menstruation.

menses: Blood and tissue discharged from the uterus periodically.

menstrual cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding to the next in an ovulating female. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the hypothalamus; the pituitary gland; the ovaries; and the genital tract.

menstruation: The (approximately) monthly discharge of blood and cellular debris from the uterus by nonpregnant women, occurring from puberty to menopause.

metr/o: uterus (womb)

metritis: Inflammation of the uterus.

metrorrhagia: Abnormal uterine bleeding that is not related to menstruation.

midwifery: The practice of assisting women in childbirth.

miscarriage: Common term for the loss of an embryo or fetus before the 20th week of pregnancy.. This term is longer accepted in clinical usage.

monorchism: Absence of one testis.

morula: An early embryo that is a compact mass.

myometrium: The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.

nat/o: birth

natal: Relating to birth.

neonatal: Pertaining to a new baby, for the first 28 days after birth.

neonate: An infant less than one month old.

nulligravida: A woman who has never been pregnant.

nullipara: A woman who has never borne a child.

OB: obstetrics

OB/GYN: obstetrics & gynecology

obstetr/o: midwife

obstetrics: The branch of medicine concerned with the care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.

OC: oral contraceptive

oligohydramnios: A condition of abnormally low amniotic fluid volume.

oligomenorrhea: Light or infrequent menstrual periods.

oligospermia: A deficiency of spermatozoa in the semen, defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.

omphal/o: umbilicus (navel)

ontogeny: The developmental history of an individual from inception to maturity.

oophor/o: ovary

oophorectomy: Surgical removal of an ovary or ovaries.

oophoritis: Inflammation of the ovary.

orchid/o: testicles

orchidalgia: Pain in the testicle.

orchidectomy: Surgical removal of one or both testicles.

orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.

orchiopexy: Surgery to move an undescended testicle into the scrotum.

orchitis: Inflammation of a testis.

orgasm: The climax of sexual excitement.

osche/o: scrotum

ov/o: egg, ovum

ovari/o: ovary

ovarian: Pertaining to the ovary.

ovarian cysts: General term for cysts and cystic diseases of the ovary.

ovarian neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ovary. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant.

ovary: Either of the sex glands in females. They produce ova and hormones.

ovulation: The discharge of an ovum from a rupturing follicle in the ovary.

ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the ovary at ovulation.

Pap: Pap test Papanicolaou smear

-para: to bear offspring

paraphimosis: A condition in which the foreskin, once retracted, cannot return to its original position. If this condition persists, it can lead to painful constriction of glans penis, swelling, and impaired blood flow to the penis.

parity: The number of viable offspring a female has borne.

-partum: childbirth

parturition: The act of giving birth to one or more offspring.

penis: The external reproductive organ of males.

perimenopause: The period of time before menopause when a woman's body changes.

perimetritis: Inflammation of the peritoneal covering of the uterus

perinatal: Pertaining to the period three months before to one month after birth.

perine/o: perineum (surface region in both males and females between the pubic symphysis and the coccyx)

peripartum period: The period shortly before, during, and immediately after giving birth.

Peyronie disease: A condition where plaques form under the skin of the penis, causing the penis to bend.

phall/o: penis

phimosis: A condition of a narrowed or tightened foreskin that cannot be retracted to reveal the glans penis.

PID: pelvic inflammatory disease

PIH: pregnancy-induced hypertension

placenta: A vascular organ that develops during pregnancy, lining the uterine wall and partially enveloping the fetus. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones .

placenta previa: A condition when the placenta covers part or all of the cervix during the last months of pregnancy.

PMS: premenstrual syndrome

polycystic ovary syndrome: A condition in which a woman’s levels of the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone are out of balance. Often cause for infertility

posset: A small amount of milk that is regurgitated by infants after feeding.

postmenopause: The physiological period following the menopause.

postpartum: The period that is shortly after giving birth.

preeclampsia: A serious pregnancy disorder characterized by high blood pressure, a large amount of protein in the urine and edema of hands and feet.

pregnancy: Carrying developing offspring (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth.

premature ejaculation: The emission of semen and seminal fluid during the act of preparation for sexual intercourse, i.e. before there is penetration, or shortly after penetration.

premenopause: The period before menopause. The transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.

prepuce: The fold of skin that grows over the end of the penis.

priapism: A abnormally prolonged erection of the penis.

primigravida: A woman who is pregnant for the first time.

primipara: A woman who has given birth to one viable infant.

prolactin: A pituitary hormone that stimulates and maintains lactation in postpartum mammals.

prostat/o: prostate

prostate: A gland that is part of a male reproductive system. Located below the bladder.

pruritus vulvae: Itching of the vulva.

puerperal: The period up until six to eight weeks after childbirth.

pyometra: Accumulation of pus in the uterine cavity.

quickening: Movements of the fetus felt by the mother, usually after the first 16 weeks of pregnancy.

salping/o: fallopian tube

salpingitis: Inflammation of the fallopian or eustachian tube.

salpingostomy: Formation of an artificial opening in a fallopian tube.

scrot/o: scrotum

scrotum: A pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.

semen: The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. It contains spermatozoa and their nutrient plasma and secretions from the prostate and bulbourethral glands.

semin/i: semen

seminoma: A malignant neoplasm of the testis.

sex: The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, phenotype, and genotype, differentiating the male from the female organism.

sexuality: The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at puberty under the influence of gonadal steroids (testosterone or estradiol) and social effects.

SGA: small for gestational age

shaken baby syndrome: Brain injuries resulted from vigorous shaking of an infant or young child held by the chest, shoulders, or extremities causing extreme cranial acceleration. It is characterized by the intracranial and intraocular hemorrhages with no evident external trauma. Serious cases may result in death.

sperm: The male gamete or sex cell that contains the genetic information to be transmitted by the male. Also called spermatozoon.

sperm/o: sperm cells

sperma-: sperm, seed

spermatids: Immature sperm cells developed in the testicle.

spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from spermatids.

STD: sexually transmitted disease

sterile: Unable to produce offspring.

syphilis: A sexually transmitted disease. A bacterial infection.

TAH: total abdominal hysterectomy

teratology: A branch of embryology for the study of congenital malformations and developmental abnormalities.

term birth: childbirth at the end of a normal duration of pregnancy, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation.

test/i: testicle

testicle: The testis and its ducts.

testis: Either of the two male gonads located in the cavity of the scrotum.

TFS: testicular feminization syndrome

thecoma: A neoplasm derived from ovarian mesenchyme.

thel/e: nipple

thelarche: The beginning of breast development at puberty.

thelo-: nipple

toc/o: labor, birth

-tocia: condition of birth, labor

trichomoniasis: A sexually transmitted disease caused by a single-celled protozoan parasite.

trimester: Any of the three successive three month periods of pregnancy.

triplet: One of three offspring born at one birth.

TUR: transurethral resection

twins: Two individuals derived from two fetuses that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the uterus simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic or dizygotic.

umbilic-: umbilicus (navel)

umbilical: Pertaining to the opening in the abdominal wall where the blood vessels from the placenta enter.

umbilical cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing fetus to the placenta. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.

umbilicus: The depression in the center of the abdominal wall where the umbilical cord entered in the fetus. Also called the navel.

uter/o: uterus

uterine: Pertaining to the uterus.

uterine prolapse: A condition where the uterus drops down into the vagina.

uterus: The womb. A female reproductive organ located between the bladder and the rectum.

vagin/o: vagina

vagina: An muscular tube connecting the cervix of the uterus to the vulva and exterior of the body.

vaginal: Pertaining to the vagina.

vaginitis: Inflammation of the vagina marked by pain and a purulent discharge.

varic/o: varices (swollen veins)

varicocele: Abnormal enlargement of the veins of the spermatic cord.

vasectomy: Surgical removal of the ductus deferens usually as a means of sterilization.

vasovasostomy: A surgical procedure in which the effects of a vasectomy (male sterilization) are reversed.

VD: venereal disease

venere/o: sexual intercourse

vitelline: Pertaining to the vitellus.

vitellus: Yolk of an egg.

vulv/o: vulva

vulva: The external genitalia of the female. It includes the clitoris, the labia, the vestibule and its glands.

vulvitis: Inflammation of the vulva.

WD: well-developed

zygote: The fertilized ovum resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.


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