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Body System: SKELETAL

acetabulum: Concave surface of pelvis where the head of the femur lies

achondroplasia: A disorder that is a form of short-limb dwarfism.

acid etching: Preparation of tooth surfaces with etching agents, such as phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion.

acromioclavicular joint: The gliding joint formed by the outer extremity of the clavicle and the inner margin of the acromion process of the scapula. This joint has six ligaments.

acromion: The lateral extension of the spine of the scapula and the highest point of the shoulder.

amputation: The removal of a limb or other body appendage.

ankle: The region between the foot and leg.

ankyl/o: bent, stiff

ankylosis: Fixation and immobility of a joint.

anodontia: Congenital absence of most or all teeth.

anterior cruciate ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that extends from the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia to the posterior part of the medial surface of the lateral condyle of the femur. Responsible for controlling stability during knee rotation.

apophysis: An outgrowth or projection from a bone.

arm: The superior part of the upper limb between the shoulder and the elbow.

arthr/o: joint

arthralgia: Joint pain.

arthritis: Inflammation of joints, characterized by pain, swelling and diminished range of motion.

arthrocentesis: Aspiration of fluid (e.g., synovial fluid) from a joint cavity.

arthrodesis: The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells.

arthrography: Imaging of a joint, usually after injection of a contrast medium.

arthrolysis: Surgical restoration of mobility in stiff, ankylosed joints.

arthroplasty: Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.

arthroscopy: Examination, therapy and surgery of a joint using an endoscope.

articul/o: joint

articulation: The junction of two or more bones. Also, forming sounds into meaningful speech.

artificial limbs: Prosthetic replacements for arms and legs.

auranofin: A drug for treating rheumatoid arthritis.

autologous: One individual being both donor and recipient (e.g. blood).

axi/o: axis

axilla: Armpit.

back: The rear surface from the shoulders to the hip.

bicuspid: A premolar tooth used for grinding food.

BMD: bone mineral density

bone: A dense, hard connective tissue that forms the framework of the skeleton.

bone density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of bone. Bone density is an important predictor for osteoporosis.

brachi/o: arm

brachial: Relating to the arm.

bregma: The juncture of the coronal and sagittal sutures on the top of the cranium.

bruxism: A disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth.

bunion: An area of thick tissue over the metatarsal phalangeal joint at the base of the great toe.

burs/o: bursa (fluid sac near joints)

bursitis: Inflammation of a bursa, the fibrous sac that acts as a cushion between moving structures of bones, muscles, tendons or skin.

calc/i: calcium

calc/o: calcium

calcane/o: heel

calcaneus: The largest of the tarsal bones, situated at the lower and back part of the foot, forming the heel.

capsulitis: Inflammation of the capsule surrounding a joint.

carp/o: wrist

carpal: Relating to the wrist.

carpal bones: The eight bones of the wrist: scaphoid bone; lunate bone; triquetrum bone; pisiform bone; trapezium bone; trapezoid bone; capitate bone; and hamate bone.

cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of chondrocytes embedded in a matrix. There are three major types: hyaline cartilage; fibrocartilage; and elastic cartilage.

caud/o: tail

centr/o: center

cephal/o: head

cephalic: Cranial. Relating to the head.

cerclage: Binding together the ends of an oblique bone fracture or the chips of a broken patella.

cervic/o: neck, cervix

cervical: Pertaining to the neck.

cheir-: hand

chin: The prominence formed by the anterior projection of the mandible and the soft tissue covering it.

chir/o: hand

chondr/i: cartilage

chondr/o: cartilage

chondral: Pertaining to cartilage.

chondrocyte: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.

chondrogenesis: The development of cartilage.

chondroma: A benign tumor derived from mesodermal cells that form cartilage

Chondromalacia: Abnormal softening or degeneration of cartilage. A common runner's injury in the knees.

chondrosarcoma: A slowly growing malignant neoplasm of cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones, scapula or in long bones.

-clasis: breaking a bone

clavicle: The collar bone.

clavicul/o: clavicle

cleid/o: clavicle

clubfoot: A congenital deformed foot in which the patient cannot stand with sole flat on the ground.

coccyg/o: coccyx (tailbone)

collagen: A fibrous protein comprising about one third of the total protein in the body. It is a main constituent of skin, bone, ligaments and cartilage.

condyl/o: knob

cost/o: rib

costal: Pertaining to the ribs.

costochondritis: A benign inflammation of one or more of the costal cartilages. Usually caused by overuse of chest wall muscles.

crani/o: skull

cranial: aPertaining to the cranium.

cranium: The skeleton of the head, holding the brain.

crepitation: A crackling sound that occurs in joints.

cubit/o: elbow, forearm

cubital: Pertaining to the elbow or forearm.

cuspid: A tooth with one cusp. In particular, he third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw.

dactyl/o: fingers, toes

dactylitis: Painful inflammation of the fingers or toes.

dentin: The main material of teeth. It is surrounded by pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root.

-desis: bind, fixation

digit/o: finger, toe

dislocation: Displacement of a body part from its normal position. Commonly used to refer to a bone displaced from a joint.

DJD: degenerative joint disease

dorsal: Pertaining to the back or posterior.

drom/o: running

elbow joint: A hinge joint connecting the forearm to the arm.

enarthrosis: A ball and socket joint.

endomorph: A body type that is relatively soft and round.

epineural: On a neural arch of a vertebra.

exoskeleton: The exterior protective or supporting structure or shell of many animals.

exostoses: Abnormal bony outgrowth from the surface of a bone

faci/o: face

femor/o: femoral (thigh bone)

femoral: Pertaining to the thigh or femur.

femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.

flexion: The act of bending a limb or the position that a limb assumes after it is bent.

foot: The distal extremity of the leg, consisting of the tarsus, metatarsus, phalanges and the soft tissues surrounding the bones.

forearm: Part of the arm in humans extending from the elbow to the wrist.

forehead: The part of the face above the eyes.

FROM: full range of motion

frontal bone: The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull.

Fx: fracture

geni/o: chin

genu: Knee.

genu varum: An outward slant of the thigh in which the knees are wide apart and the ankles close together.

glenoid cavity: A depression in the lateral angle of the scapula that articulates with the head of the humerus.

globus: A sphere. A spherical structure.

gnath-: jaw, cheek

goni/o: angle

gout: Acute arthritis that causes severe pain and swelling in the joints due to the accumulation of urate crystals.

gyr-: ring, circle

hallux valgus: A bunion. A deformity of the joint connecting the big toe to the foot.

hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist consisting of the carpus, metacarpus, and fingers.

head: The upper part of the body containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.

hemarthrosis: Bleeding into the joints.

hip: The region of the body around the joint between the top of the femur and side of the pelvis.

humerus: The bone of the upper arm. It extends from the shoulder joint to the elbow joint.

hyperostosis: Abnormal thickening or growth of bone.

hypsi-: high

ili/o: ilium (uppermost and largest bone of the pelvis)

ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.

incisor: Any of the four maxillary and four mandibular teeth, having a sharp incisal edge.

ischium: The inferior, dorsal portion of the hip bone.

ithy-: erect, straight

jaw: Bony structure of the mouth consisting of the mandible and the maxilla.

joint capsule: The sac surrounding a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner synovial membrane.

JRA: juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

jt.: joint

kinetics: The study of the interrelationships that exist between body parts and how those connections influence movement.

knee: The joint between inferior femur and superior

kyph/o: bent, hump

kyphosis: Deformities of the spine characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. Sometimes called round back or hunchback.

lacuna: A small cavity or depression.

lamin/o: lamina (part of the vertebral arch that forms the roof of the spinal canal)

laminectomy: A surgical procedure to remove a portion of the vertebral bone called the lamina.

leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the knee and the ankle. Common usage is the entire lower limb.

ligament: Flexible, tough bands of fibrous tissue connecting bones at a joint.

-listhesis: slipping

lord/o: curve, swayback

lordosis: Abnormal, concave curvature of the lower spine. Also called swayback.

lox/o: oblique, slanting

lumb/o: lower back

lumbago: Mild to severe low back pain.

lumbar: Referring to the lower back below the thoracic vertebrae and above the sacral vertebrae.

-lysis: loosening, separating

macrocephaly: Abnormally large head.

malleolus: The bony prominence on either side of the ankle.

malocclusion: Faulty contact between the upper and lower teeth when the jaw is closed.

malunion: Faulty alignment of broken bone fragments.

mandible: The large, u-shaped bone that supports the lower teeth, forming the lower jaw.

mandibul/o: mandible (lower jaw bone)

manubrium: The uppermost part of the sternum.

mastoid/o: rounded protrusion of bone behind the ear

maxill/o: upper jawbone formed from the fusion of two maxillary bones

maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw.

maxillofacial: Pertaining to the jaws and face.

mediastinal: Pertaining to a median septum or space between two parts of the body.

mega-: large, great

mel/o: limb

meniscus: Crescent-shaped cartilage inside the knee joint that absorb shock and stabilize the joint.

metacarpals: The long bones in the hand located between the phalanges of the fingers and the carpal bones of the wrist.

metatarsal bones: The five long bones of the metatarsus, articulating with the tarsal bones proximally and the phalanges of toes distally.

metatarsalgia: Pain in the region of the metatarsus.

metatarsals: Five long bones in the foot, located between the ankle and toes.

metatarsus: The part of the foot between the tarsus and the toes.

microdontia: Abnormally small teeth.

micrognathism: Abnormally small jaw.

molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw which are used for grinding.

nasion: A point on the skull where the top of the nose meets the ridge of the forehead.

neck: The body part connecting the head to the rest of the body.

noto-: back

occipital bone: The curved, shield-shaped bone forming the lower rear part of the skull, enclosing the foramen magnum.

odontogenesis: The process of tooth development.

oligodontia: Absence of some teeth.

om/o: shoulder

opisth-: behind

opposition: Relation of the position of the thumb to the other fingers.

orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.

ORIF: open reduction internal fixation

orthodontics: The dental specialty dealing with correction of dental abnormalities.

orthopedics: A surgical specialty which treats and corrects injuries, deformities and diseases to the skeletal system and joints.

orthotic: A device for correcting an orthopedic problem. Commonly used for the foot.

orthotic devices: A device used to support, align, or correct deformities of movable parts of the body.

oss/e: bone

oss/i: bone

osseous: Composed of or resembling bone.

oste/o: bone

osteitis: Inflammation of the bone.

osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis.

osteoblastoma: A benign, painful, vascular tumor of bone marked by the formation of osteoid tissue, primitive bone and calcified tissue.

osteochondritis: Inflammation of a bone and its overlaying cartilage.

osteochondroma: A cartilage-capped benign tumor that often appears as a stalk on the surface of bone.

osteochondrosis: Any of a group of disorders of the growth ossification centers in children

osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the bone matrix.

osteogenesis: The process of bone formation.

osteology: The science that studies the structure and function of bones.

osteolysis: Dissolution of bone.

osteoma: A benign, slow growing tumor composed of bone tissue.

osteomalacia: An interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets.

osteonecrosis: Death of a bone or part of a bone.

osteophyte: Bony projection usually found around joints and often seen in arthritis.

osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures.

osteosclerosis: An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.

osteotomy: Cutting of a bone.

palate: The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate and the posterior soft palate.

pan-: all

paratenon: The fatty or synovial tissue between a tendon and its sheath.

parietal bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the frontal bone and occipital bone, which together form the sides of the cranium.

patella: The flat, triangular bone about 5 cm in diameter, situated at the anterior part of the knee. Also called the kneecap.

pelv/i: pelvis

pelvis: The lower portion of the trunk, bounded anteriorly and laterally by the two hip bones and posteriorly by the sacrum and coccyx.

periarthritis: Inflammation of the tissues around a joint capsule.

periosteum: Thick, fibrous membrane covering the surface of a bone except its articular cartilage and areas where it attaches to tendons and ligaments.

periostitis: Inflammation of the periosteum.

petr/o: stone, stone-like hardness

phalangitis: Inflammation of a finger or toe.

-physis: growth, growing

PIP: proximal interphalangeal

plagiocephaly: The condition characterized an irregular shape of the head often in parallelogram shape with a flat spot on the back or one side of the head.

plantar: Bottom of the foot

platybasia: A malformation of the cranium so that the floor of the posterior cranial fossa bulges upward in the region about the foramen magnum.

-pod: foot

pod/o: foot

polyarthritis: Simultaneous inflammation of several joints.

polychondritis: Inflammation of cartilage.

polydactyly: A congenital anomaly of the hand or foot, characterized by supernumerary digits.

popliteal: Pertaining to the area behind the knee.

-porosis: decrease in density

posture: The position of the body.

precordium: The region of the thorax immediately over the heart.

prosthesis: A device that replaces a missing body part or makes a part of the body work better.

pseudarthrosis: A new, false, fibrous joint arising at the site of an ununited fracture.

psoriatic arthritis: Arthritis associated with psoriasis, affecting joints and the spine.

pub/o: pubic, pubes

pubic bone: A bone that forms the lower and anterior part of each side of the hip bone.

pubic symphysis: A slightly movable cartilaginous joint which occurs between the pubic bones.

pyarthrosis: Acute inflammation of synovial membranes.

rachi/o: spinal column

RF: rheumatoid factor

rheumatic diseases: Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.

rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disease that causes pain, swelling, and stiffness in the joints, commonly the hands and wrists. May lead to early crippling.

ribs: The flat, curved bones that form a protective cage for the chest organs, consisting of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage.

rickets: A disease of growing bone caused by interruption of bone mineralization. Caused by lack of vitamin D.

ROM: range of motion

sacr/o: sacrum (large bone at base of spine)

sacroiliitis: Inflammation of the sacroiliac joint, marked by lower back pain, fever, uveitis, psoriasis and decreased range of motion.

sacrum: The large, triangular bone at the dorsal part of the pelvis, between the two hip bones. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the pelvis.

sagittal: A plane that extends down the long axis of the body, parallel to the median plane.

scaphoid bone: The bone which is located most lateral in the proximal row of carpal bones.

scapul/o: scapula (shoulder blade)

scapula: The flat triangular bone in the back of the shoulder. Also called the shoulder blade.

scoli/o: curved, crooked

scoliosis: A sideways curvature of the spine that occurs most often during the growth spurt just before puberty.

sesamoid: Denoting a small nodular bone embedded in a tendon or joint capsule and that slides over another bony surface. The patella is a sesamoid bone.

shoulder: The junction of the clavicle, scapula, and humerus where the arm connects to the trunk.

shoulder dislocation: Displacement of the humerus from the scapula.

skeleton: The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues and provides attachments for muscles.

skull: The skeleton of the head including the facial bones and the bones enclosing the brain.

sling: A bandage that supports an injured limb.

sphenoid bone: An irregular unpaired bone situated at the skull base and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones.

sphenoid/o: sphenoid (compound bone at base of skull)

spin/o: spine

spina bifida: A spinal birth defect.

spine: The spinal or vertebral column.

spondyl/o: vertebra, backbone

spondylitis: Inflammation of the synovial joints of the backbone.

spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.

spondylolysis: The degeneration of a vertebra.

spondylosis: A degenerative spinal disease that can involve any part of the vertebra, the intervertebral disk, and the surrounding soft tissue.

stern/o: sternum (breastbone)

sternoclavicular joint: A double gliding joint formed by the clavicle, superior and lateral parts of the manubrium sternum at the clavicular notch and the cartilage of the first rib.

sternum: A long, narrow, and flat bone commonly known as breastbone occurring in the midsection of the anterior thoracic segment or chest region, which stabilizes the rib cage and serves as the point of origin for several muscles that move the arms, head and neck.

subtalar joint: Formed by the articulation of the talus with the calcaneus.

synovectomy: Removal of part or all of the synovial membrane of a joint

synovi/o: synovial membrane, synovial joint

tal/o: talus, ankle

talus: The second largest of the tarsal bones, articulating with the tibia and fibula to form the ankle joint.

tars/o: tarsal bone (ankle), edge of eyelid

tarsal: Pertaining to the bones of the ankle and foot.

tarsal bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus: calcaneus, talus, cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.

tarsal joints: The articulations between the various tarsal bones.

tarsalgia: Pain in the foot.

tarsus: The bones of the ankle and proximal part of the foot.

taxis: Returning a body part back to its normal position after a dislocation, fracture or hernia.

temporal bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing.

tendinitis: Inflammation of a tendon.

tendinosis: Degeneration of a tendon.

tendon: A strap of white fibrous connective tissue that joins muscle to bone.

tennis elbow: A condition characterized by pain in or near the lateral humeral epicondyle or in the forearm extensor muscle mass as a result of unusual strain.

tenodesis: Fixation of the end of a tendon to a bone, often by suturing.

tenoplasty: Surgical repair of a tendon.

tenosynovitis: Inflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath.

tenotomy: Surgical division of a tendon for relief of a congenital deformity of a joint.

THR: total hip replacement

thumb: The first digit on the radial side of the hand opposite the other four digits.

tibi/o: tibia

tibia: The medial and larger of the two bones of the lower leg, articulating with the fibula laterally, the talus distally, and the femur proximally.

TKR: total knee replacement

TMJ: temporomandibular joint

tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.

toothache: Pain in or around a tooth.

ulna: The inner and longer bone of the forearm.

ulnar: Pertaining to the ulna, the long medial bone of the forearm.

vertebrae: The bones or segments composing the spinal column,

xiph/o: sword shaped, xiphoid

zygoma: Either of a pair of bones that form the prominent part of the CHEEK and contribute to the ORBIT on each side of the SKULL.
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