Research studies have demonstrated that listening to a heart sound for 2-3 minutes can help students master auscultation.
For textual descriptions, waveforms and heart animations, please use our courses on this website.
S1: Systole: S2: Diastole: Features:Ask patient to say "99" several times. Auscultate chest walls. Over consolidated areas "99" is understandable. For example, pneumonia in the upper lobes, both posterior and anterior. Compare to the Bronchophony - Healthy recording