Research studies have demonstrated that listening to a heart sound for 2-3 minutes can help students master auscultation.
For textual descriptions, waveforms and heart animations, please use our courses on this website.
S1: Systole: S2: Diastole: Features:Crackles begin in late inspiration and increase. High-pitched, variable loudness. Best heard over posterior bases of the lungs. Do not usually clear with coughing