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Medical Dictionary - Letter: d



TermDefinition
/dper day
D&Cdilatation and curettage
D&Vdiarrhea & vomiting
dacry/otears
dacryoadenitisInflammation of the lacrimal glands (the eye’s tear-producing glands).
dacryocystitisInflammation of the lacrimal sac.
dactyl/ofingers, toes
dactylitisPainful inflammation of the fingers or toes.
danderFine, dry scales from the scalp.
dandruffExcessive shedding of dry scaly material from the scalp.
dantroleneMuscle relaxant drug.
dark adaptationAdjustment of the retina and pupil of the eyes under conditions of low light enabling increased sensitivity to light.
DAWdispense as written
dBdecibel
DBPdiastolic blood pressure
dcdiscontinue
DDxdifferential diagnosis
de-lack of, without, less, down
DEADrug Enforcement Agency
deafnessA general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
deathIrreversible cessation of all bodily functions.
debridementA procedure used to remove dead tissue and contaminated substances from a wound, by soaking or excising.
deca-ten
decapitationRemoval of the head.
decayThe gradual decomposition of dead organisms after death.
decelerationA decrease in the rate of speed.
deci-one tenth
decibelA unit for comparing levels of power on a logarithmic scale. Commonly used for measuring sound.
deciduaThe membrane lining the wall of the uterus during pregnancy.
decongestantA substance that reduces nasal congestion.
decubitusThe recumbent position. Lying on one's side.
deepBelow the surface of the skin or within body cavity or limbs.
deetA common insect repellent.
defamationFalse written or spoken statements that are known to be false and that are damaging to the reputation of a person, group or organization.
defibrillationUse of an electronic device to give an electric shock to the heart to reestablish normal cardiac rhythm.
degenerationThe gradual loss of function of a cell, tissue or organ.
dehydrationThe condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
deja vuA subjective feeling that a current experience is a repetition of a previous experience.
deliriumA state of mental confusion that can occur due to illness, surgery or using certain medications.
delirium tremensThe most severe form of alcohol withdrawal, causing confusion, irregular heart rate, and sweating.
deltoidThick triangular muscle in the shoulder whose function is to abduct, flex, and extend the arm.
delusionA belief that is clearly false.
dem/opeople, population
dementiaA group of symptoms caused by brain disorder. Not a specific disease. Causes are peripheral vascular disease, stroke, toxins, or Alzheimer's.
demihalf
dendriteShort branches of the nerve cell body that receive stimuli from other neurons.
dengueAn acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. It occurs in tropical regions and is characterized by fever, severe pain, headache and rash.
denialRefusal to admit the truth or reality of a situation or experience.
dent/iteeth
dentinThe main material of teeth. It is surrounded by pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root.
deodorantA substance that represses or masks odors.
deoxyribonucleic acidThe primary carrier of genetic information. It consists of two chains of nucleotides that are twisted into a double helix and joined by hydrogen bonds between complementary bases.
dependenceThe state of reliance or subservience to another person or a substance.
depersonalizationA feeling of unreality concerning the self or the environment.
depreciationDecline in value of capital assets over time.
depression1) A sunken or hollow area. 2) Mental state of feeling sad, lonely, discouraged, hopeless or dejected.
deprevationThe loss or lack of something that is needed.
derailmentMental disorder marked by speech consisting of a sequence of unrelated or remotely related ideas.
derivativeSomething produced as a modification of another object or thought.
Dermdermatology
derm/oskin
derma-skin
dermat/oskin
dermatitisInflammation of the skin. May be caused by allergic reaction, drugs, infection or sun exposure.
dermatologyA medical specialty concerned with the structure, functions, diseases and treatment of the skin.
dermisA layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the epidermis. Embedded in or beneath it are glands, hair follicles, nerves and lymphatic vessels.
desicc/odrying
desiccationRemoval of moisture from a substance.
-desisbind, fixation
desm/oligament
desmoid tumorA dense, fibrous neoplasm. Occurs on the abdomen, upper arms, neck and head.
desmosomesAn area of contact between adjacent cells, particularly epithelia.
detergentA cleaning agent.
detoxificationThe removal of poisons, alcohol or drugs and their effects from a patient.
detritionWearing away by use or friction.
deviantPertaining to an object or person that departs from normal. Abnormal.
dew pointThe temperature at which water vapor in the air condenses to liquid.
dextr/oright
DIdiabetes insipidus
di-two, twice, double
dia-complete, through
diabetes insipidusA hormonal condition that causes the individual to have excessive and frequent urination. Inadequate ADH secretion.
diabetes mellitusA grouping of diseases that affect how the body uses glucose. Type I is lack of insulin, Type II is insulin resistance.
diabetic retinopathyThe most common diabetic eye disease. It occurs when blood vessels in the retina are damaged. Leading cause of blindness in working age adults.
diagnosisThe determination of the nature of a disease or condition, or the distinguishing of one disease or condition from another.
diagnosis-related groupsA system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay.
dialysisA therapeutic procedure used in patients with kidney failure for removal of harmful wastes and fluids from the blood.
diaper rashDermatitis of the buttocks and thighs due to contact with urine or feces.
diaphoresisProfuse sweating that is artificially induced.
diaphragmThe muscle sheet that that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdomen. The diaphragm's contraction and relaxation changes the volume of the thoracic cavity, aiding breathing.
diarrheaThe onset of three or more loose or liquid bowel movements in a day.
diastolePart of the heart rhythm when the ventricles passively relax and refill with blood.
diastolic blood pressureAtrial blood pressure during diastole when the heart is resting. The second number in a blood pressure reading.
diathesisGenetic predisposition to certain diseases or abnormalities.
DICdisseminated intravascular coagulation
dicroticA heartbeat with two separate peaks.
dielectricInsulating material that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
dietary fiberIndigestible carbohydrate materials. Can be soluble or insoluble in water.
dieteticPertaining to food and nutrition.
dif-separation, taking apart, reversal
differential diagnosisDistinguishing between two or more conditions having similar symptoms by systematic clinical comparison.
differentiationThe acquisition of functions or forms different that the original.
diffusionThe process of particles in gases and liquids to move from areas of high concentration to areas of lower concentration resulting in even distribution of such particles.
digdigitalis; digoxin
digestionThe process of converting food into absorbable substances for metabolism and use by the body.
digestive systemA group of structures, organs and glands stretching from the mouth to the anus, that breakdown food substances, absorb nutrients and remove waste.
digit/ofinger, toe
digitalisMedicines that strengthen heart contraction and to slow heart rates, particularly for atrial fibrillation.
digitizationThe conversion of images, sounds or text into a digital form.
dildilute; diluted
dilat/oenlarge, expand
dilationCausing the increase in the diameter of an organ, vessel or body opening.
diopterA unit of measurement of the refractive power of a lens.
dioxinHighly toxic, persistent environmental pollutant. A contaminant of a widely used herbicide.
diphtheriaA bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract that causes a thick web to form in the back of the throat. May be fatal. Preventable with immunization. Can also damage heart muscle and nerves.
dipl/odouble, two-sided
diplegiaParalysis involving both sides of the body.
diplopiaDouble vision.
dips-thirst
-dipsiathirst
dipsomaniaUncontrollable, recurring craving for alcohol.
dis-twice, apart, not
discA rounded, flat plate.
dischargeTo release. The substance that is released.
disclosureThe revealing of information.
diseaseA disorder of an organ or body function. Characterized by signs and symptoms.
disinfectantSubstance that kills or inhibits harmful microorganisms.
disinfectionKilling pathogens or rendering them harmless.
dislocationDisplacement of a body part from its normal position. Commonly used to refer to a bone displaced from a joint.
disorientationA mentally confused state. Loss of one's bearings.
dissectionThe separation of tissues for surgical reasons or for analysis.
dissociationSeparation of a particular of thoughts or emotions from normal consciousness.
dissolveTo disperse a solid in a solution.
dist/odistant, far
distalfarthest from the origin
distemperHighly contagious and dangerous viral diseases of animals, particularly dogs.
distillationA process of separating the components of a liquid mixture by vaporization and condensation.
distortionA state of being twisted out of shape. A defense mechanism to disguise unacceptable thoughts.
diuresisIncreased excretion of urine.
diureticsMedication that promote the excretion of urine, decreasing fluids in the blood vessels and reducing blood pressure. Also known as water pills.
diurnalDaily or relating to daylight hours.
diverticulitisAn inflammation in the diverticula of the intestinal tract.
diverticulosisThe presence of multiple pouches, usually in the colonic or gastric wall.
diverticulumA pouch or sac developed from a tubular or saccular organ, such as the gastrointestinal tract.
DJDdegenerative joint disease
DKAdiabetic ketoacidosis
dLdeciliter
DMdiabetes mellitus
DNAdeoxyribonucleic acid
DNRdo not resuscitate
DOAdead on arrival
DOBdate of birth
DOEdyspnea on exertion
dolich/olong
dolor/opain
dominantExhibiting a ruling influence. In genetics, capable of expression when carried by only one of a pair of homologous chromosomes.
donorA human, animal or other organism that provides tissue for another body.
dopamineA central nervous system neurotransmitter.
doppler effectChanges in the observed frequency of sound, light, or radio waves due to the relative motion of source and observer.
dors/oback of body
dorsalPertaining to the back or posterior.
dorsiflexionThe movement of the ankle joint that brings the dorsal (top region) of the foot towards the shin.
dorsumtop of the foot
down syndromeA congenital disorder characterized by small size, hypotonia, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands and cognitive impairment.
DPLdiagnostic peritoneal lavage
DPTdiphtheria, pertussis, tetanus (vaccine)
drdram
drainageThe removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
DREdigital rectal examination
DRGdiagnosis-related group
drom/orunning
-dromerunning
dry eye syndromeCorneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production.
dry socketAn inflammation of a tooth socket, that can occur after tooth extraction, caused by the disintegration of a blood clot.
DSBdrug-seeking behavior
DTRdeep tendon reflex
DTsdelirium tremens
DUBdysfunctional uterine bleeding
duct/oto lead
duoden/oduodenum
duodenitisInflammation of the duodenum section of the small intestine.
duodenumThe proximal (first) portion of the small intestine, extending from the pylorus to the jejunum.
dur/ohard, dura mater
dura materThe dense, leathery membrane covering and protecting the brain and spinal cord.
DVTdeep vein thrombosis
dwarfismAbnormally short in stature.
DWIdriving while intoxicated
Dxdiagnosis
dynam/opower, strength
-dyniapain
dys-bad, painful, abnormal
dysarthriaDifficulty in articulating words caused by impairment of the pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles.
dysenteryAcute inflammation of the intestine marked by frequent watery stools, often with blood and by pain, fever, and dehydration.
dysgenesisDefective development.
dyskinesiaInvoluntary muscle movements of the face, trunk, neck and extremities and difficulty with voluntary movements. Often associated with the use of certain medications.
dyslexiaA common condition that affects the way the brain processes written and spoken language.
dysmenorrheaPainful cramps that can occur immediately before or during the menstrual period.
dyspepsiaImpaired digestion, especially after eating.
dysphagiaDifficulty in swallowing.
dysphoniaDifficulty in speaking.
dysplasiaAbnormal development in tissues or organs.
dysplastic neviUnusual, benign moles that may resemble melanoma.
dyspneaDifficult or labored breathing. Can indicate heart failure or a respiratory abnormality.
dyssomniaA disorder in which normal sleep patterns are disrupted.
dystociaDifficult childbirth.
dystoniaA disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions that cause slow repetitive movements or abnormal postures.
dystrophyAny abnormal condition caused by defective nutrition
dysuriaPainful or difficult urination.

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