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Medical Dictionary - Letter: r



TermDefinition
R/Orule out
Raradium
rabiesAcute viral infection affecting mammals, including humans.
rachi/ospinal column
radradiation absorbed dose
RAD (2)right anterior descending
radi/ox-rays, radius
radial arteryAn artery in the forearm that starts at the bifurcation of the brachial artery and passing in branches to the forearm, wrist, and hand.
radial keratotomyA surgical procedure used to decrease nearsightedness.
radial nerveA major nerve of the upper extremity, originating in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord, traveling via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supplying motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
radiationElectromagnetic energy that travels through empty space with the speed of light.
radicul/onerve root
radicular cystA slow growing cyst of the periodonal tissue at the root of a tooth.
radiculopathyDisease involving a spinal nerve root.
radiographyExamination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-rays or gamma rays.
radioisotopesIsotopes that exhibit radioactivity.
radiologyA medical specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
ram/ibranch
ramusA branch, as of a nerve, blood vessel or bone.
ranulaA cyst found on the floor of the mouth. Also called sublingual cyst.
rapeSexual intercourse without consent of the victim.
rashA temporary eruption of spots on the skin.
rationalizationAn unconscious defense mechanism in which a person attempts to justify behavior while ignoring the real reasons.
Raynaud diseaseAn idiopathic vascular disorder of small arteries and arterioles.
RBBBright bundle branch block
RBCred blood cell; red blood count
RDArecommended daily/dietary allowance
RDSrespiratory distress syndrome
Rerhenium
re-again, back
-receptorreceiver
recessiveDescribing a gene capable of producing its characteristic phenotype in the organism only when its allele is identical.
rect/orectum
rectoceleHerniation of the rectum into the vagina.
rectumThe distal segment of the large intestine, between the sigmoid colon and the anal canal.
recurrenceThe return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
referred painPain felt at a place in the body different from the injured or diseased part.
reflexA quick, involuntary movement or exercise of function, in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
reflex arcThe neural path of a reflex.
regimenA systematic plan for therapy, often involving diet, exercise and medication.
regurgitationThe return of partly digested food from the stomach to the mouth. Also, the backflow of blood past an abnormal heart valve.
rejuvenationThe restoration of youthfulness, vitality, and freshness.
relapseThe return of disease symptoms after partial recovery.
REMrapid eye movement
rem sleepA stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
remissionThe abatement or disappearance of a disease as a result of treatment.
ren/okidney
renalPertaining to the kidneys.
reperfusionRestoration of blood supply to tissue which was ischemic.
replicationThe process by which double-stranded DNA makes copies of itself when the cell divides.
resectionSurgical removal of all or part of a structure, organ or tissue.
residual volumeThe volume of air remaining in the lungs at the end of a maximal expiration.
respir/obreathing
respirationBreathing.
respiratory systemThe organs and structures that bring about gas exchange between ambient air and the blood.
respiratory therapyCare of patients with abnormalities associated with the pulmonary system.
restenosisThe recurrence of stenosis in an artery after previous treatment.
resuscit/orevive
resuscitationTo restore consciousness or other signs of life to one apparently dead.
reteA network of blood vessels, fibers or nerves.
retentionThe ability of the digestive system to hold fluids and food.
RETICreticulocyte
reticul/onet, network
reticulocytesImmature erythrocytes.
reticulocytosisAn increase in circulating reticulocytes, which is among the simplest and most reliable signs of accelerated erythrocyte production.
retin/oretina
retinaThe ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. The innermost layer of the eye, which receives images transmitted through the lens and contains the receptors for vision, the rods and cones
retinitisInflammation of the retina.
retinopexyA surgery for certain types of retinal detachments.
retractorA surgical instrument used to draw aside and hold the edges of a wound or structures.
retro-backward
Reye syndromeAn acquired encephalopathy of young children that follows an acute febrile illness, usually influenza or varicella infection.
RFrheumatoid factor
Rhrhesus factor
rh factorA type of protein on the surface of red blood cells. Most people who have the Rh factor are Rh-positive. Those who do not have the Rh factor are Rh-negative.
rhabd-rod
rhabdomy/ostriated muscle
rhabdomyomaA rare, benign neoplasm derived from striated muscle.
rhabdomyosarcomaMalignant neoplasm derived from skeletal (striated) muscle.
RHDrheumatic heart disease
rhe/ostream, flow, electric current
rheumatic diseasesDisorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.
rheumatic feverA disease occurring as a complication of inadequately treated strep throat infection. Can result in serious damage to heart valves.
rheumatoid arthritisAn autoimmune disease that causes pain, swelling, and stiffness in the joints, commonly the hands and wrists. May lead to early crippling.
rheumatologyA subspecialty of medicine concerned with the study of inflammatory or degenerative processes and metabolic derangement of connective tissue structures which pertain to a variety of musculoskeletal disorders, such as arthritis.
rhin/onose
rhinitisInflammation of the nasal mucous membrane.
rhinomanometryTechnique for measuring airflow and pressure in the nasal cavity during respiration.
rhinoplastyPlastic surgery on the nose.
rhinosporidiosisChronic, localized fungal infection of mucocutaneous tissues, especially the nose.
rhiz/oroot
rhodo-red
rhonchiA coarse rattling breath sound somewhat similar to snoring.
rhythm/orhythm
rhytid/owrinkle
rhytidectomyA facelift.
rhytidoplastyPlastic surgery performed for the elimination of skin wrinkles.
riboflavinVitamin B2.
ribsThe flat, curved bones that form a protective cage for the chest organs, consisting of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage.
RICErest, ice, compression, elevation
ricketsA disease of growing bone caused by interruption of bone mineralization. Caused by lack of vitamin D.
rickettsiaA genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein micro capsular layer and slime layer. Transmitted to humans by arthropods. Cause Lyme Disease, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Typhus.
rigor mortisMuscular rigidity which develops in the cadaver usually from 4 to 10 hours after death and lasts 3 or 4 days.
RINDreversible ischemic neurologic deficit
RLEright lower extremity
RLLright lower lobe
RLQright lower quadrant
RMLright middle lobe of lung
Rnradon
rnaAny of a class of nucleic acids that can encode genetic information and play an essential role in protein synthesis.
RNPRegistered Nurse Practitioner
ROMrange of motion
ROSreview of systems
rosaceaA common, chronic skin condition characterized by facial redness and often small, red pus-filled bumps. Also known as "Adult Acne".
rot-wheel, turn
rotator cuffThe musculotendinous sheath formed by the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor muscles. These help stabilize the head of the humerus in the glenoid fossa and allow for rotation of the shoulder joint about its longitudinal axis.
RPhRegistered Pharmacist
RPMrevolutions per minute
RQrespiratory quotient
RRrecovery room
RR (2)respiratory rate
-rrhagebursting forth
-rrhaphysuture
-rrheadischarge, flow
-rrhexisrupture
RSIrepetitive stress injury
RSVrespiratory syncytial virus
RTRespiratory Therapist
rubellaInfectious viral disease caused by virus entering the respiratory tract and spreading to the lymphatic system. Often affecting children and nonimmune young adults. High risk of deafness in fetus. Preventable with MMR vaccine.
RUEright upper extremity
RULright upper lobe
ruptureForcible or traumatic tear of an organ or other soft part of the body.
RUQright upper quadrant
RVresidual volume
Rxprescription, medication

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